• children;
  • lower urinary tract dysfunction;
  • nomogram;
  • post-void residual urine;
  • urinary tract infection



To establish the first age- and gender-specific nomograms for single and two consecutive tests for post-void residual urine (PVR).

Material and Methods

Healthy children aged 4–12 years were enrolled for two sets of uroflowmetry and PVR. The first PVR and the lower value of the two consecutive PVRs of each child with a voided volume ≥50 ml were included for construction of Single- and Dual-PVR nomograms. Children with possible urinary tract infection or lower urinary tract dysfunctions were excluded.

Results and Limitations

Totally, 1,128 children (583 boys and 545 girls) with a mean age of 7.7 ± 2.2 years were eligible for analysis. The 95th percentile of Single-PVR for all children was 27.2 ml, or 19.2% of bladder capacity (BC), while that for Dual-PVR were 11.2 ml or 6.0% of BC, respectively. Multivariate studies showed that PVR was positively associated with BC, negatively associated with age, higher in boys than girls, and higher in abnormal uroflow patterns. For children aged ≤6 years, a single PVR >30 ml or >21% BC, or repetitive PVR >20 ml or >10% BC can be regarded as elevated. For children aged ≥7 years, a single PVR >20 ml or 15% BC, or repetitive PVR >10 ml or 6% BC can be redefined as elevated.


Age, gender, and BC should be taken into considerations at interpretation of PVR tests in children. Repeating PVR test is recommended when a single PVR is higher than the 95th percentile of age- and gender-specific PVR. Neurourol. Urodynam. 32: 1014–1018, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.