Conflict of interest: none.
Original Clinical Article
Article first published online: 17 APR 2013
Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Neurourology and Urodynamics
Volume 32, Issue 7, pages 1014–1018, September 2013
How to Cite
Chang, S.-J., Chiang, I.-N., Hsieh, C.-H., Lin, C.-D. and Yang, S. S.-D. (2013), Age- and gender-specific nomograms for single and dual post-void residual urine in healthy children. Neurourol. Urodyn., 32: 1014–1018. doi: 10.1002/nau.22342
Roger Dmochowski led the peer-review process as the Associate Editor responsible for the paper.
- Issue published online: 12 AUG 2013
- Article first published online: 17 APR 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 27 SEP 2012
- Manuscript Received: 19 JUL 2012
- Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Taipei Branch. Grant Number: TCRD-TPE-97-C2-1; IRB
- Unknown funding agency. Grant Number: 97-IRB-026-coP
- lower urinary tract dysfunction;
- post-void residual urine;
- urinary tract infection
To establish the first age- and gender-specific nomograms for single and two consecutive tests for post-void residual urine (PVR).
Material and Methods
Healthy children aged 4–12 years were enrolled for two sets of uroflowmetry and PVR. The first PVR and the lower value of the two consecutive PVRs of each child with a voided volume ≥50 ml were included for construction of Single- and Dual-PVR nomograms. Children with possible urinary tract infection or lower urinary tract dysfunctions were excluded.
Results and Limitations
Totally, 1,128 children (583 boys and 545 girls) with a mean age of 7.7 ± 2.2 years were eligible for analysis. The 95th percentile of Single-PVR for all children was 27.2 ml, or 19.2% of bladder capacity (BC), while that for Dual-PVR were 11.2 ml or 6.0% of BC, respectively. Multivariate studies showed that PVR was positively associated with BC, negatively associated with age, higher in boys than girls, and higher in abnormal uroflow patterns. For children aged ≤6 years, a single PVR >30 ml or >21% BC, or repetitive PVR >20 ml or >10% BC can be regarded as elevated. For children aged ≥7 years, a single PVR >20 ml or 15% BC, or repetitive PVR >10 ml or 6% BC can be redefined as elevated.
Age, gender, and BC should be taken into considerations at interpretation of PVR tests in children. Repeating PVR test is recommended when a single PVR is higher than the 95th percentile of age- and gender-specific PVR. Neurourol. Urodynam. 32: 1014–1018, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.