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Keywords:

  • defence mechanisms;
  • hydrokinetics;
  • impaired washout mechanisms;
  • neurogenic bladder;
  • risk factors;
  • urinary tract infection

Abstract

Aims

To comprehensively review factors implicated in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection in patients with neurogenic bladders, and to stimulate research, especially in the somewhat ignored and forgotten areas of this important clinical subject.

Methods

In addition to reviewing relevant articles on pubmed, some important articles from previous times which were not available online were also procured and reviewed.

Results

Intrinsic defence mechanisms including protective flora, anti-adherence mechanisms, urothelial, and immunological responses to bacterial binding and the blood supply to the urinary bladder may be impaired in patients with neurogenic bladders. Further, bacterial washout mechanisms may be compromised as a result of inefficient voiding, reflux, and altered hydrokinetics. Finally, catheterization itself contributes to urinary tract infection in patients with neurogenic bladders.

Conclusions

In order to address the issue of urinary tract infection in patients with neurogenic bladders, multiple factors need to be looked into and corrected. Further research is required, especially in the area of compromised host defence mechanisms. An individualized approach, which attempts to optimize each factor is recommended. Neurourol. Urodynam. 33:95–100, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.