It is time to abandon “Expected bladder capacity.” Systematic review and new models for children's normal maximum voided volumes

Authors

  • Roberto Martínez-García,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Urology, Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
    • Correspondence to: Roberto Martínez-García, Department of Urology, Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibañez, 17. 46110 Valencia, Spain. E-mail: roberto.martinez@uv.es

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  • Maria Isabel Úbeda-Sansano,

    1. Primary Health Care Centre, La Eliana, Valencia, Spain
    2. Vaccine Institute of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
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  • Javier Díez-Domingo,

    1. Vaccine Institute of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
    2. Vaccine Research Department, Center for Public Health Research (CSISP), FISABIO of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
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  • Santiago Pérez-Hoyos,

    1. Unitat Suport Metodològic a l'Investigació Biomedica (USMIB), Institut de Recerca Hospital Vall Hebrón, Barcelona, Spain
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  • Manuel Gil-Salom

    1. Department of Surgery, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
    2. Department of Urology, Dr. Peset Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
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  • Roger Dmochowski led the peer-review process as the Associate Editor responsible for the paper.
  • Conflict of interest: none.

Abstract

Background

There is an agreement to use simple formulae (expected bladder capacity and other age based linear formulae) as bladder capacity benchmark. But real normal child's bladder capacity is unknown.

Aims

To offer a systematic review of children's normal bladder capacity, to measure children's normal maximum voided volumes (MVVs), to construct models of MVVs and to compare them with the usual formulae.

Methods

Computerized, manual and grey literature were reviewed until February 2013. Epidemiological, observational, transversal, multicenter study. A consecutive sample of healthy children aged 5–14 years, attending Primary Care centres with no urologic abnormality were selected. Participants filled-in a 3-day frequency–volume chart. Variables were MVVs: maximum of 24 hr, nocturnal, and daytime maximum voided volumes. Factors: diuresis and its daytime and nighttime fractions; body-measure data; and gender. The consecutive steps method was used in a multivariate regression model.

Results

Twelve articles accomplished systematic review's criteria. Five hundred and fourteen cases were analysed. Three models, one for each of the MVVs, were built. All of them were better adjusted to exponential equations. Diuresis (not age) was the most significant factor. There was poor agreement between MVVs and usual formulae. Nocturnal and daytime maximum voided volumes depend on several factors and are different.

Conclusions

Nocturnal and daytime maximum voided volumes should be used with different meanings in clinical setting. Diuresis is the main factor for bladder capacity. This is the first model for benchmarking normal MVVs with diuresis as its main factor. Current formulae are not suitable for clinical use. Neurourol. Urodynam. 33:1092–1098, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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