• bladder pain;
  • drug abuse;
  • ketamine;
  • surgery;
  • pelvic pain



To report our early results of augmentation enterocystoplasty (AE) for severe bladder pain associated with chronic ketamine cystitis (KC).


We performed AE for 14 patients with refractory KC-related bladder pain, which is based on the criteria including severe bladder pain, urgency and frequency and/or upper urinary tract damage such as bilateral hydronephrosis, and contracted bladder. Every patient had been treated conservatively with medication or cystoscopic hydrodistention for at least 1 year before they had received surgical intervention. Video-urodynamic studies were obtained before AE and 3–6 months after surgery. Outcome measurements included visual analogue score (VAS) for pain, cystometric bladder capacity (CBC), maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), post-void residual, and maximal detrusor pressure (Pdet). The patients' general satisfaction with regard to treatment outcome was also assessed by the Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC).


A total of 4 men and 10 women underwent this procedure as indicated. The mean age was 26.7 (ranged 20–38) years old and the duration of ketamine abuse was 3.82 years (ranged 2–7). Contracted bladder was noted in all patients, hydronephrosis in nine and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in eight. At 3–6 months after AE, VAS was remarkably improved from baseline to the end-point (8.29 ± 1.54 vs. 2.14 ± 1.51, P < 0.0001), CBC increased from 50.9 ± 15.7 to 309.2 ± 58.0 ml (P < 0.0001), Qmax increased from 6.94 ± 3.60 to 15.2 ± 5.51 ml/sec (P < 0.0001) and Pdet reduced from 29.7 ± 16.0 to 17.9 ± 8.2 cmH2O (P = 0.008). All patients reported marked improvement in PPBC from 6.0 to 1.4 ± 0.89 (P < 0.0001). All hydronephrosis disappeared and VUR was resolved in five patients after AE with ureteral reimplantation.


This pilot study demonstrated that AE is effective in relieving refractory ketamine-related bladder pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. Neurourol. Urodynam. 33:1207–1211, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.