Dirk De Ridder led the peer-review process as the Associate Editor responsible for the paper.
State of the Art
State of the art review: Intravaginal probes for recording electromyography from the pelvic floor muscles
Article first published online: 21 NOV 2013
© 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Neurourology and Urodynamics
Volume 34, Issue 2, pages 104–112, February 2015
How to Cite
Keshwani, N. and McLean, L. (2015), State of the art review: Intravaginal probes for recording electromyography from the pelvic floor muscles. Neurourol. Urodyn., 34: 104–112. doi: 10.1002/nau.22529
Conflict of interest: none.
- Issue published online: 11 FEB 2015
- Article first published online: 21 NOV 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 22 OCT 2013
- Manuscript Received: 16 JUL 2013
- levator ani;
- pelvic floor;
To survey commercially available intravaginal probes designed to record electromyography (EMG) from the pelvic floor muscles (PFMs), and to discuss the strengths and limitations of current technology.
The MEDLINE EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDRO, and Cochrane databases were searched for articles in which intravaginal probes were described as having been used to record EMG from the PFMs. The World Wide Web was also searched using the Google search engine to find devices used to record EMG from the PFMs. Finally, a Canadian distributer of intravaginal probes was contacted to identify intravaginal EMG probes not identified through other methods. The specifications of each probe were determined through the manufacturer or their website, and each device was acquired by the investigators to verify the specifications and electrode configuration. The devices were evaluated against international standards for recording EMG data.
Sixteen different models of commercially available intravaginal probes were identified: seven from published research papers, seven using the World Wide Web, and two through communication with a distributer. The probes vary in shape, dimensions, electrode positioning, and electrode configuration, with many designs prone to recording motion artifact, crosstalk, and/or inappropriate EMG signals.
All commercially available intravaginal probes had deficiencies in their design such as problems with probe geometry, electrode size, location, and/or configuration. Improved intravaginal EMG probes should be developed for use in research and clinical practice. Neurourol. Urodynam. 34:104–112, 2015. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.