A biomarker is an entity that measures a normal or pathological process, or the response to an intervention. A biomarker must measure exclusively and be sufficiently sensitive to the process of interest. Alternatively, a biomarker may give clues regarding the underlying pathology of the condition and be a useful research or specialist tool. If a biomarker is to be of practical benefit then it must also be economical and practical to use. This article will consider chemical moieties as biomarkers, although in principle physical markers (e.g., bladder wall thickness) could also be defined as such.