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Bladder function development and its urodynamic evaluation in neonates and infants less than 2 years old


  • Karl-Erik Andersson led the peer-review process as the Associate Editor responsible for the paper.
  • Conflict of interest: none.
  • This review proceeded from workshop W41: Pediatric Bladder Function Development, Urodynamic Evaluation and treatment, which was held during the 42nd ICS annual meeting, Beijing (15th–19th October 2012).



To understand the function development of bladder and its evaluation in neonates and infants less than 2 years old.


Literature on neonatal and infant bladder function development and urodynamic evaluation were collected and reviewed.


Normal range of bladder volume, pressure during voiding and other parameters in neonates and infants less than 2 years old is far from set up, making interpretation of UDS findings difficult. This review provides insight into the bladder development process and problems of the lower urinary tract in this age group with special emphasis on the urodynamic evaluation.


Further animal and human studies will increase our understanding of bladder development leading toward mature function. UDS are still important in providing information for early bladder dysfunction in newborns and infants. Neurourol. Urodynam. 34:554–560, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.