• 1
    Peyron JG. Osteoarthritis. The epidemiologic viewpoint. Clin. Orthop. 1986; 213: 1319.
  • 2
    Felson DT. Epidemiology of hip and knee osteoarthritis. Epidemiol. Rev. 1988; 10: 128.
  • 3
    Felson DT. Osteoarthritis. Rheum. Dis. Clin. North Am. 1990; 16: 499512.
  • 4
    Felson DT, Zhang Y, Hannan MT, Naimark A, Weissman BN, Aliabadi P, Levy D. The incidence and natural history of knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. The Framingham Osteoarthritis Study. Arthritis Rheum. 1995; 38: 15001505.
  • 5
    Felson DT, Lawrence RC, Dieppe PA, Hirsch R, Helmick CG, Jordan JM, Kington RS, Lane NE, Nevitt MC, Zhang Y, Sowers M, McAlindon T, Spector TD, Poole AR, Yanovski SZ, Ateshian G, Sharma L, Buckwalter JA, Brandt KD, Fries JF. Osteoarthritis: new insights. Part 1: the disease and its risk factors. Ann. Intern. Med. 2000; 133: 635646.
  • 6
    Felson DT. An update on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of osteoarthritis. Radiol. Clin. North Am. 2004; 42: 19.
  • 7
    Sarzi-Puttini P, Cimmino MA, Scarpa R, Caporali R, Parazzini F, Zaninelli A, Atzeni F, Canesi B. Osteoarthritis: an overview of the disease and its treatment strategies. Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 2005; 35: 110.
  • 8
    Beuf O, Ghosh S, Newitt DC, Link TM, Steinbach L, Ries M, Lane N, Majumdar S. Magnetic resonance imaging of normal and osteoarthritic trabecular bone structure in the human knee. Arthritis Rheum. 2002; 46: 385393.
  • 9
    Felson DT, McLaughlin S, Goggins J, LaValley MP, Gale ME, Totterman S, Li W, Hill C, Gale D. Bone marrow edema and its relation to progression of knee osteoarthritis. Ann. Intern. Med. 2003; 139: 330336.
  • 10
    Sowers MF, Hayes C, Jamadar D, Capul D, Lachance L, Jannausch M, Welch G. Magnetic resonance-detected subchondral bone marrow and cartilage defect characteristics associated with pain and X-ray-defined knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2003; 11: 387393.
  • 11
    Cicuttini F, Wluka A, Davis S, Strauss BJ, Yeung S, Ebeling PR. Association between knee cartilage volume and bone mineral density in older adults without osteoarthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2004; 43(6): 765769.
  • 12
    Zhai G, Stankovich J, Ding C, Scott F, Cicuttini F, Jones G. The genetic contribution to muscle strength, knee pain, cartilage volume, bone size and radiographic osteoarthritis: a sibpair study. Arthritis Rheum. 2004; 50: 805810.
  • 13
    Blumenkrantz G, Lindsey CT, Dunn TC, Jin H, Ries MD, Link TM, Steinbach LS, Majumdar S. A pilot, two-year longitudinal study of the interrelationship between trabecular bone and articular cartilage in the osteoarthritic knee. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2004; 12: 9971005.
  • 14
    Lajeunesse D. The role of bone in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2004; 12(Suppl. A): S34S38.
  • 15
    Burr DB. Anatomy and physiology of the mineralized tissues: role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthrosis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2004; 12(Suppl. A): S20S30.
  • 16
    Felson DT. Risk factors for osteoarthritis: understanding joint vulnerability. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 2004; (427 Suppl): 1621.
  • 17
    Felson DT, Neogi T. Osteoarthritis: is it a disease of cartilage or of bone? Arthritis Rheum. 2004; 50: 341344.
  • 18
    Carrington JL. Aging bone and cartilage: cross-cutting issues. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2005; 328: 700708.
  • 19
    Mrosek EH, Lahm A, Erggelet C, Uhl M, Kurz H, Eissner B, Schagemann JC. Subchondral bone trauma causes cartilage matrix degeneration: an immunohistochemical analysis in a canine model. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2006, 14(2): 171180.
  • 20
    Peterfy CG. Imaging of the disease process. Curr. Opin. Rheumatol. 2002; 14: 590596.
  • 21
    Conaghan PG, Felson DT. Structural associations of osteoarthritis pain: lessons from magnetic resonance imaging. Novartis Found. Symp. 2004; 260: 191201; discussion; 201–205 , 277–279.
  • 22
    Eckstein F, Glaser C. Measuring cartilage morphology with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. Semin. Musculoskelet. Radiol. 2004; 8: 329353.
  • 23
    Gray ML, Eckstein F, Peterfy C, Dahlberg L, Kim YJ, Sorensen AG. Toward imaging biomarkers for osteoarthritis. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 2004; (427 Suppl): S175S181.
  • 24
    Beary JF III. Joint structure modification in osteoarthritis: development of SMOAD drugs. Curr. Rheumatol. Rep. 2001; 3: 506512.
  • 25
    Felson DT, Lawrence RC, Hochberg MC, McAlindon T, Dieppe PA, Minor MA, Blair SN, Berman BM, Fries JF, Weinberger M, Lorig KR, Jacobs JJ, Goldberg V. Osteoarthritis: new insights. Part 2: treatment approaches. Ann. Intern. Med. 2000; 133: 726737.
  • 26
    Altman RD. Measurement of structure (disease) modification in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2004; 12(Suppl. A): S69S76.
  • 27
    Pelletier JP. Rationale for the use of structure-modifying drugs and agents in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2004; 12(Suppl. A): S63S68.
  • 28
    Abadie E, Ethgen D, Avouac B, Bouvenot G, Branco J, Bruyere O, Calvo G, Devogelaer JP, Dreiser RL, Herrero-Beaumont G, Kahan A, Kreutz G, Laslop A, Lemmel EM, Nuki G, Van De Putte L, Vanhaelst L, Reginster JY. Recommendations for the use of new methods to assess the efficacy of disease-modifying drugs in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2004; 12(4): 263280.
  • 29
    Fajardo M, Di Cesare PE. Disease-modifying therapies for osteoarthritis: current status. Drugs Aging 2005; 22: 141161.
  • 30
    Altman RD. Structure-/disease-modifying agents for osteoarthritis. Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 2005; 34: 35.
  • 31
    Verbruggen G. Chondroprotective drugs in degenerative joint diseases. Rheumatology 2006; 45(2): 129138.
  • 32
    Woertler K, Strothmann M, Tombach B, Reimer P. Detection of articular cartilage lesions: experimental evaluation of low- and high-field-strength MR imaging at 0.18 and 1.0 T. J. Magn Reson. Imaging 2000; 11: 678685.
  • 33
    Roemer FW, Guermazi A, Lynch JA, Peterfy CG, Nevitt MC, Webb N, Li J, Mohr A, Genant HK, Felson DT. Short tau inversion recovery and proton density-weighted fat suppressed sequences for the evaluation of osteoarthritis of the knee with a 1.0 T dedicated extremity MRI: development of a time-efficient sequence protocol. Eur. Radiol. 2005; 15: 978987.
  • 34
    Peterfy CG, Roberts T, Genant HK. Dedicated extremity MR imaging: an emerging technology. Magn. Reson. Imaging Clin. North Am. 1998; 6: 849870.
  • 35
    Masciocchi C, Barile A, Satragno L. Musculoskeletal MRI: dedicated systems. Eur. Radiol. 2000; 10: 250255.
  • 36
    Gold GE, Suh B, Sawyer-Glover A, Beaulieu C. Musculoskeletal MRI at 3.0 T: initial clinical experience. AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 2004; 183: 14791486.
  • 37
    Gold GE, Han E, Stainsby J, Wright G, Brittain J, Beaulieu C. Musculoskeletal MRI at 3.0 T: relaxation times and image contrast. AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 2004; 183: 343351.
  • 38
    Masi JN, Sell CA, Phan C, Han E, Newitt D, Steinbach L, Majumdar S, Link TM. Cartilage MR imaging at 3.0 versus that at 1.5 T: preliminary results in a porcine model. Radiology 2005; 236: 140150.
  • 39
    Link TM, Sell CA, Masi JN, Phan C, Newitt D, Lu Y, Steinbach L, Majumdar S. 3.0 vs 1.5 T MRI in the detection of focal cartilage pathology – ROC analysis in an experimental model. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2006; 14: 6370.
  • 40
    Recht MP, Kramer J, Marcelis S, Pathria MN, Trudell D, Haghighi P, Sartoris DJ, Resnick D. Abnormalities of articular cartilage in the knee: analysis of available MR techniques. Radiology 1993; 187: 473478.
  • 41
    Recht MP, Piraino DW, Paletta GA, Schils JP, Belhobek GH. Accuracy of fat-suppressed three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo FLASH MR imaging in the detection of patellofemoral articular cartilage abnormalities. Radiology 1996; 198: 209212.
  • 42
    Disler DG, McCauley TR, Kelman CG, Fuchs MD, Ratner LM, Wirth CR, Hospodar PP. Fat-suppressed three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo MR imaging of hyaline cartilage defects in the knee: comparison with standard MR imaging and arthroscopy. AJR Am. J Roentgenol. 1996; 167: 127132.
  • 43
    Peterfy CG, Guermazi A, Zaim S, Tirman PF, Miaux Y, White D, Kothari M, Lu Y, Fye K, Zhao S, Genant HK. Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS) of the knee in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2004; 12: 177190.
  • 44
    Ding C, Garnero P, Cicuttini F, Scott F, Cooley H, Jones G. Knee cartilage defects: association with early radiographic osteoarthritis, decreased cartilage volume, increased joint surface area and type II collagen breakdown. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2005; 13: 198205.
  • 45
    Ding C, Cicuttini F, Scott F, Cooley H, Jones G. Association between age and knee structural change: a cross-sectional MRI based study. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2005; 64: 549555.
  • 46
    Ding C, Cicuttini F, Scott F, Cooley H, Jones G. Knee structural alteration and BMI: a cross-sectional study. Obes. Res. 2005; 13: 350361.
  • 47
    Wang Y, Ding C, Wluka AE, Davis S, Ebeling PR, Jones G, Cicuttini FM. Factors affecting progression of knee cartilage defects in normal subjects over 2 years. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2006; 45(1): 7984.
  • 48
    Mohr A, Priebe M, Taouli B, Grimm J, Heller M, Brossmann J. Selective water excitation for faster MR imaging of articular cartilage defects: initial clinical results. Eur. Radiol. 2003; 13: 686689.
  • 49
    Broderick LS, Turner DA, Renfrew DL, Schnitzer TJ, Huff JP, Harris C. Severity of articular cartilage abnormality in patients with osteoarthritis: evaluation with fast spin-echo MR vs arthroscopy. AJR Am. J Roentgenol. 1994; 162: 99103.
  • 50
    Kawahara Y, Uetani M, Nakahara N, Doiguchi Y, Nishiguchi M, Futagawa S, Kinoshita Y, Hayashi K. Fast spin-echo MR of the articular cartilage in the osteoarthrotic knee. Correlation of MR and arthroscopic findings. Acta Radiol. 1998; 39: 120125.
  • 51
    Bredella MA, Tirman PF, Peterfy CG, Zarlingo M, Feller JF, Bost FW, Belzer JP, Wischer TK, Genant HK. Accuracy of T2-weighted fast spin-echo MR imaging with fat saturation in detecting cartilage defects in the knee: comparison with arthroscopy in 130 patients. AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 1999; 172: 10731080.
  • 52
    Biswal S, Hastie T, Andriacchi TP, Bergman GA, Dillingham MF, Lang P. Risk factors for progressive cartilage loss in the knee: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study in forty-three patients. Arthritis Rheum. 2002; 46: 28842892.
  • 53
    Yoshioka H, Stevens K, Hargreaves BA, Steines D, Genovese M, Dillingham MF, Winalski CS, Lang P. Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage of the knee: comparison between fat-suppressed three-dimensional SPGR imaging, fat-suppressed FSE imaging and fat-suppressed three-dimensional DEFT imaging and correlation with arthroscopy. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2004; 20: 857864.
  • 54
    Kornaat PR, Reeder SB, Koo S, Brittain JH, Yu H, Andriacchi TP, Gold GE. MR imaging of articular cartilage at 1.5 T and 3.0 T: comparison of SPGR and SSFP sequences. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2005; 13: 338344.
  • 55
    Link TM, Majumdar S, Peterfy C, Daldrup HE, Uffmann M, Dowling C, Steinbach L, Genant HK. High resolution MRI of small joints: impact of spatial resolution on diagnostic performance and SNR. Magn. Reson. Imaging 1998; 16: 147155.
  • 56
    Kornaat PR, Ceulemans RY, Kroon HM, Riyazi N, Kloppenburg M, Carter WO, Woodworth TG, Bloem JL. MRI assessment of knee osteoarthritis: Knee Osteoarthritis Scoring System (KOSS)—inter-observer and intra-observer reproducibility of a compartment-based scoring system. Skeletal Radiol. 2005; 34: 95102.
  • 57
    Conaghan PG, Hunter D, Tennant A, Amin S, Clancy M, Guermazi A, Peterfy C, Genant HK, Felson D. Evaluation an MRI scoring system for osteoarthritis of the knee using modern psychometric approaches. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2004; 12(Suppl. B): S118 [abstract].
  • 58
    Link TM, Steinbach LS, Ghosh S, Ries M, Lu Y, Lane N, Majumdar S. Osteoarthritis: MR imaging findings in different stages of disease and correlation with clinical findings. Radiology 2003; 226: 373381.
  • 59
    Zhai G, Ding C, Stankovich J, Cicuttini F, Jones G. The genetic contribution to longitudinal changes in knee structure and muscle strength: a sibpair study. Arthritis Rheum. 2005; 52: 28302834.
  • 60
    Wluka AE, Ding C, Jones G, Cicuttini FM. The clinical correlates of articular cartilage defects in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a prospective study. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2005; 44: 13111316.
  • 61
    Felson DT, Chaisson CE, Hill CL, Totterman SM, Gale ME, Skinner KM, Kazis L, Gale DR. The association of bone marrow lesions with pain in knee osteoarthritis. Ann. Intern. Med. 2001; 134: 541549.
  • 62
    Kauffmann C, Gravel P, Godbout B, Gravel A, Beaudoin G, Raynauld JP, Martel-Pelletier J, Pelletier JP, de Guise JA. Computer-aided method for quantification of cartilage thickness and volume changes using MRI: validation study using a synthetic model. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 2003; 50: 978988.
  • 63
    Raynauld JP, Kauffmann C, Beaudoin G, Berthiaume MJ, de Guise JA, Bloch DA, Camacho F, Godbout B, Altman RD, Hochberg M, Meyer JM, Cline G, Pelletier JP, Martel-Pelletier J. Reliability of a quantification imaging system using magnetic resonance images to measure cartilage thickness and volume in human normal and osteoarthritic knees. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2003; 11: 351360.
  • 64
    Raynauld JP, Martel-Pelletier J, Berthiaume MJ, Labonte F, Beaudoin G, de Guise JA, Bloch DA, Choquette D, Haraoui B, Altman RD, Hochberg MC, Meyer JM, Cline GA, Pelletier JP. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of knee osteoarthritis progression over two years and correlation with clinical symptoms and radiologic changes. Arthritis Rheum. 2004; 50: 476487.
  • 65
    Gold GE, Hargreaves BA, Reeder SB, Vasanawala SS, Beaulieu CF. Controversies in protocol selection in the imaging of articular cartilage. Semin. Musculoskelet. Radiol. 2005; 9: 161172.
  • 66
    Hargreaves BA, Gold GE, Lang PK, Conolly SM, Pauly JM, Bergman G, Vandevenne J, Nishimura DG. MR imaging of articular cartilage using driven equilibrium. Magn. Reson. Med. 1999; 42: 695703.
  • 67
    Mosher TJ, Pruett SW. Magnetic resonance imaging of superficial cartilage lesions: role of contrast in lesion detection. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 1999; 10: 178182.
  • 68
    Eckstein F, Hudelmaier M, Wirth W, Kiefer B, Jackson R, Yu J, Eaton C, Schneider E. Double echo steady state (DESS) magnetic resonance imaging of knee articular cartilage at 3 Tesla – a pilot study for the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2006; 65(4): 433441.
  • 69
    Tamez-Pena JG, Barbu-McInnis M, Jackson R, Yu J, Eaton C, Totterman S. Cartilage quantification: comparison between 3 T DESS and 3 T FLASH sequences. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2005; 13(Suppl. A): S124 [abstract].
  • 70
    Duryea J, Neumann G, Koh W, Noorbash F, Lang PK, Jackson R, Yu J, Eaton CB. Semi-automated software to segment cartlage from knee MRI scans. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2005; 13(Suppl. A): S127 [abstract].
  • 71
    Peterfy CG, van Dijke CF, Janzen DL, Gluer CC, Namba R, Majumdar S, Lang P, Genant HK. Quantification of articular cartilage in the knee with pulsed saturation transfer subtraction and fat-suppressed MR imaging: optimization and validation. Radiology 1994; 192: 485491.
  • 72
    Eckstein F, Gavazzeni A, Sittek H, Haubner M, Losch A, Milz S, Englmeier KH, Schulte E, Putz R, Reiser M. Determination of knee joint cartilage thickness using three-dimensional magnetic resonance chondro-crassometry (3D MR-CCM). Magn. Reson. Med. 1996; 36: 256265.
  • 73
    Cicuttini F, Forbes A, Asbeutah A, Morris K, Stuckey S. Comparison and reproducibility of fast and conventional spoiled gradient-echo magnetic resonance sequences in the determination of knee cartilage volume. J. Orthop. Res. 2000; 18: 580584.
  • 74
    Hardy PA, Recht MP, Piraino DW. Fat suppressed MRI of articular cartilage with a spatial-spectral excitation pulse. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 1998; 8: 12791287.
  • 75
    Glaser C, Faber S, Eckstein F, Fischer H, Springer V, Heudorfer L, Stammberger T, Englmeier KH, Reiser M. Optimization and validation of a rapid high-resolution T1-w 3D FLASH water excitation MRI sequence for the quantitative assessment of articular cartilage volume and thickness. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2001; 19: 177185.
  • 76
    Graichen H, Springer V, Flaman T, Stammberger T, Glaser C, Englmeier KH, Reiser M, Eckstein F. Validation of high-resolution water-excitation magnetic resonance imaging for quantitative assessment of thin cartilage layers. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2000; 8: 106114.
  • 77
    Burgkart R, Glaser C, Hyhlik-Durr A, Englmeier KH, Reiser M, Eckstein F. Magnetic resonance imaging-based assessment of cartilage loss in severe osteoarthritis: accuracy, precision and diagnostic value. Arthritis Rheum. 2001; 44: 20722077.
  • 78
    Graichen H, Eisenhart-Rothe R, Vogl T, Englmeier KH, Eckstein F. Quantitative assessment of cartilage status in osteoarthritis by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging: technical validation for use in analysis of cartilage volume and further morphologic parameters. Arthritis Rheum. 2004; 50: 811816.
  • 79
    Inglis D, Ionnidis G, Eckstein F., Pui M, Boulos P, Adachi JD, Webber C. Validation of quantitative cartilage measurements on a 1 T extremity MRI system. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2004; 12(Suppl. B): S62 [abstract].
  • 80
    Inglis D, Kunz M, Beattie K, Ioannidis G, Hudelmaier M, Adachi JD, Webber CE, Eckstein F. Can multi-planar reformatting recover reproducible morphological asessment of femoral cartilage from mal-aligned coronal scans ? Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2005; 13(Suppl. A): S133 [abstract].
  • 81
    Eckstein F, Charles HC, Buck RJ, Kraus VB, Remmers AE, Hudelmaier M, Wirth W, Evelhoch JL. Accuracy and precision of quantitative assessment of cartilage morphology by magnetic resonance imaging at 3.0 T. Arthritis Rheum. 2005; 52: 3132 3136.
  • 82
    Eckstein F, Reiser M, Englmeier KH, Putz R. In vivo morphometry and functional analysis of human articular cartilage with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging—from image to data, from data to theory. Anat. Embryol. (Berl.) 2001; 203: 147173.
  • 83
    Hudelmaier M, Glaser C, Hohe J, Englmeier KH, Reiser M, Putz R, Eckstein F. Age-related changes in the morphology and deformational behavior of knee joint cartilage. Arthritis Rheum. 2001; 44: 25562561.
  • 84
    Hardy PA, Newmark R, Liu YM, Meier D, Norris S, Piraino DW, Shah A. The influence of the resolution and contrast on measuring the articular cartilage volume in magnetic resonance images. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2000; 18: 965972.
  • 85
    Marshall KW, Guthrie BT, Mikulis DJ. Quantitative cartilage imaging. Br. J. Rheumatol. 1995; 34(Suppl. 1): 2931.
  • 86
    Cicuttini F, Morris KF, Glisson M, Wluka AE. Slice thickness in the assessment of medial and lateral tibial cartilage volume and accuracy for the measurement of change in a longitudinal study. J. Rheumatol. 2004; 31: 24442448.
  • 87
    Zhai G, Ding C, Cicuttini F, Jones G. Optimal sampling of MRI slices for the assessment of knee cartilage volume for cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. BMC Musculoskelet. Disord. 2005; 6(1): 10.
  • 88
    Eckstein F, Ateshian G, Burgkart R, Burstein D, Cicuttini F, Dardzinski BJ, Gray M, Link T, Majumdar S, Mosher TJ, Peterfy C, Totterman S, Waterton JC, Winalski C, Felson D. Proposal for a nomenclature for magnetic resonance imaging based measures of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2006; May 18; (Epub ahead of print).
  • 89
    Burgkart R, Glaser C, Hinterwimmer S, Hudelmaier M, Englmeier KH, Reiser M, Eckstein F. Feasibility of T and Z scores from magnetic resonance imaging data for quantification of cartilage loss in osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2003; 48: 28292835.
  • 90
    Piplani MA, Disler DG, McCauley TR, Holmes TJ, Cousins JP. Articular cartilage volume in the knee: semiautomated determination from three-dimensional reformations of MR images. Radiology 1996; 198: 855859.
  • 91
    Eckstein F, Schnier M, Haubner M, Priebsch J, Glaser C, Englmeier KH, Reiser M. Accuracy of cartilage volume and thickness measurements with magnetic resonance imaging. Clin. Orthop. 1998: (352) 137148.
  • 92
    Solloway S, Hutchinson CE, Waterton JC, Taylor CJ. The use of active shape models for making thickness measurements of articular cartilage from MR images. Magn. Reson. Med. 1997; 37: 943952.
  • 93
    Kshirsagar AA, Watson PJ, Tyler JA, Hall LD. Measurement of localized cartilage volume and thickness of human knee joints by computer analysis of three-dimensional magnetic resonance images. Invest. Radiol. 1998; 33: 289299.
  • 94
    Cohen ZA, McCarthy DM, Kwak SD, Legrand P, Fogarasi F, Ciaccio EJ, Ateshian GA. Knee cartilage topography, thickness and contact areas from MRI: in-vitro calibration and in-vivo measurements. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1999; 7: 95109.
  • 95
    Stammberger T, Eckstein F, Michaelis M, Englmeier KH, Reiser M. Interobserver reproducibility of quantitative cartilage measurements: comparison of B-spline snakes and manual segmentation. Magn, Reson. Imaging 1999; 17: 10331042.
  • 96
    Lynch JA, Zaim S, Zhao J, Stork A, Peterfy CG, Genant HK. Cartilage segmentation of 3D MRI scans of the osteoarthritic knee combining juser knowledge and active contours. Proc. SPIE 2000; 3979: 925935.
  • 97
    Ghosh S, Ries M, Lane N, Ghajar C, Majumdar S. Segmentation of high resolution articular cartilage MR images. Trans. Orthopedic Res. Soc. (ORS) 2000; 246 [abstract].
  • 98
    Steines D, Cheng C, Wong A, Berger F, Napel S, Lang P. Segmentation of osteoarthritic femoral cartilage from MR images. Proc. Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, 14th International Congress 2000; 303308.
  • 99
    Gougoutas AJ, Wheaton AJ, Borthakur A, Shapiro EM, Kneeland JB, Udupa JK, Reddy R. Cartilage volume quantification via live wire segmentation. Acad. Radiol. 2004; 11: 13891395.
  • 100
    Koo S, Gold GE, Andriacchi TP. Considerations in measuring cartilage thickness using MRI: factors influencing reproducibility and accuracy. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2005; 13: 782789.
  • 101
    Faber SC, Eckstein F, Lukasz S, Muhlbauer R, Hohe J, Englmeier KH, Reiser M. Gender differences in knee joint cartilage thickness, volume and articular surface areas: assessment with quantitative three-dimensional MR imaging. Skeletal Radiol. 2001; 30: 144150.
  • 102
    Cicuttini F, Forbes A, Morris K, Darling S, Bailey M, Stuckey S. Gender differences in knee cartilage volume as measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1999; 7: 265271.
  • 103
    Eckstein F, Winzheimer M, Hohe J, Englmeier KH, Reiser M. Interindividual variability and correlation among morphological parameters of knee joint cartilage plates: analysis with three-dimensional MR imaging. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2001; 9: 101111.
  • 104
    McGibbon CA, Palmer WE, Krebs DE. A general computing method for spatial cartilage thickness from co-planar MRI. Med. Eng. Phys. 1998; 20: 169176.
  • 105
    Ateshian GA, Soslowsky LJ, Mow VC. Quantitation of articular surface topography and cartilage thickness in knee joints using stereophotogrammetry. J. Biomech. 1991; 24: 761776.
  • 106
    Ateshian GA. A B-spline least-squares surface-fitting method for articular surfaces of diarthrodial joints. J. Biomech. Eng. 1993; 115: 366373.
  • 107
    Hohe J, Ateshian G, Reiser M, Englmeier KH, Eckstein F. Surface size, curvature analysis and assessment of knee joint incongruity with MRI in vivo. Magn. Reson. Med. 2002; 47: 554561.
  • 108
    Cohen ZA, Roglic H, Grelsamer RP, Henry JH, Levine WN, Mow VC, Ateshian GA. Patellofemoral stresses during open and closed kinetic chain exercises. An analysis using computer simulation. Am. J. Sports Med. 2001; 29: 480487.
  • 109
    Ahmad CS, Cohen ZA, Levine WN, Ateshian GA, Mow VC. Biomechanical and topographic considerations for autologous osteochondral grafting in the knee. Am. J. Sports Med. 2001; 29: 201206.
  • 110
    Cohen ZA, Henry JH, McCarthy DM, Mow VC, Ateshian GA. Computer simulations of patellofemoral joint surgery: patient-specific models for tuberosity transfer. Am. J. Sports Med. 2003; 31: 8798.
  • 111
    Lee KY, Dunn TC, Steinbach LS, Ozhinsky E, Ries MD, Majumdar S. Computer-aided quantification of focal cartilage lesions of osteoarthritic knee using MRI. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2004; 22: 11051115.
  • 112
    Lee KY, Masi JN, Sell CA, Schier R, Link TM, Steinbach LS, Safran M, Ma B, Majumdar S. Computer-aided quantification of focal cartilage lesions using MRI: accuracy and initial arthroscopic comparison. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2005; 13: 728737.
  • 113
    Lösch A, Eckstein F, Haubner M, Englmeier KH. A non-invasive technique for 3-dimensional assessment of articular cartilage thickness based on MRI. Part 1: development of a computational method. Magn. Reson. Imaging 1997; 15: 795804.
  • 114
    Cohen ZA, Mow VC, Henry JH, Levine WN, Ateshian GA. Templates of the cartilage layers of the patellofemoral joint and their use in the assessment of osteoarthritic cartilage damage. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2003; 11: 569579.
  • 115
    McGibbon CA, Trahan CA. Measurement accuracy of focal cartilage defects from MRI and correlation of MRI graded lesions with histology: a preliminary study. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2003; 11: 483493.
  • 116
    Stammberger T, Hohe J, Englmeier KH, Reiser M, Eckstein F. Elastic registration of 3D cartilage surfaces from MR image data for detecting local changes in cartilage thickness. Magn. Reson. Med. 2000; 44: 592601.
  • 117
    Waterton JC, Solloway S, Foster JE, Keen MC, Gandy S, Middleton BJ, Maciewicz RA, Watt I, Dieppe PA, Taylor CJ. Diurnal variation in the femoral articular cartilage of the knee in young adult humans. Magn. Reson. Med. 2000; 43: 126132.
  • 118
    Lynch JA, Zaim S, Zhao J, Peterfy CG, Genant HK. Automatic measurement of subtle changes in articular cartilage from MRI of teh knee by combining 3D image registration and segmentation. Proc. SPIE 2001; 4322: 431439.
  • 119
    Buckland-Wright JC, Macfarlane DG, Lynch JA, Jasani MK, Bradshaw CR. Joint space width measures cartilage thickness in osteoarthritis of the knee: high resolution plain film and double contrast macroradiographic investigation. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 1995; 54: 263268.
  • 120
    Eckstein F, Sittek H, Gavazzeni A, Schulte E, Milz S, Kiefer B, Reiser M, Putz R. Magnetic resonance chondro-crassometry (MR CCM): a method for accurate determination of articular cartilage thickness? Magn. Reson. Med. 1996; 35: 8996.
  • 121
    Eckstein F, Stammberger T, Priebsch J, Englmeier KH, Reiser M. Effect of gradient and section orientation on quantitative analysis of knee joint cartilage. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2000; 11: 161167.
  • 122
    Morgan SR, Waterton JC, Maciewicz RA, Leadbetter JE, Gandy SJ, Moots RJ, Creamer P, Nash AF. Magnetic resonance imaging measurement of knee cartilage volume in a multicentre study. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2004; 43: 1921.
  • 123
    Hudelmaier M, Horger W, Pfau C, Glaser C, Reiser M, Eckstein F. Cross-calibration of magnetic resonance sequences and scanners for quantifying articular cartilage morphology. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2003; 11(Suppl. A): S72 [abstract].
  • 124
    McGibbon CA, Bencardino J, Yeh ED, Palmer WE. Accuracy of cartilage and subchondral bone spatial thickness distribution from MRI. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2003; 17: 703715.
  • 125
    El Khoury GY, Alliman KJ, Lundberg HJ, Rudert MJ, Brown TD, Saltzman CL. Cartilage thickness in cadaveric ankles: measurement with double-contrast multi-detector row CT arthrography versus MR imaging. Radiology 2004; 233: 768773.
  • 126
    Graichen H, Jakob J, Eisenhart-Rothe R, Englmeier KH, Reiser M, Eckstein F. Validation of cartilage volume and thickness measurements in the human shoulder with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2003; 11: 475482.
  • 127
    Peterfy CG, van Dijke CF, Lu Y, Nguyen A, Connick TJ, Kneeland JB, Tirman PF, Lang P, Dent S, Genant HK. Quantification of the volume of articular cartilage in the metacarpophalangeal joints of the hand: accuracy and precision of three-dimensional MR imaging. AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 1995; 165: 371375.
  • 128
    Graichen H, Al Shamari D, Hinterwimmer S, Eisenhart-Rothe R, Vogl T, Eckstein F. Accuracy of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of ex vivo focal cartilage defects. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2005; 64: 11201125.
  • 129
    Hyhlik-Dürr A, Faber S, Burgkart R, Stammberger T, Maag KP, Englmeier KH, Reiser M, Eckstein F. Precision of tibial cartilage morphometry with a coronal water-excitation MR sequence. Eur. Radiol. 2000; 10: 297303.
  • 130
    Eckstein F, Heudorfer L, Faber SC, Burgkart R, Englmeier KH, Reiser M. Long-term and resegmentation precision of quantitative cartilage MR imaging (qMRI). Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2002; 10: 922928.
  • 131
    Eckstein F, Lemberger B, Stammberger T, Englmeier KH, Reiser M. Patellar cartilage deformation in vivo after static versus dynamic loading. J. Biomech. 2000; 33: 819825.
  • 132
    Eckstein F, Lemberger B, Gratzke C, Hudelmaier M, Glaser C, Englmeier KH, Reiser M. In vivo cartilage deformation after different types of activity and its dependence on physical training status. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2005; 64: 291295.
  • 133
    Glaser C, Burgkart R, Kutschera A, Englmeier KH, Reiser M, Eckstein F. Femoro-tibial cartilage metrics from coronal MR image data: technique, test–retest reproducibility and findings in osteoarthritis. Magn. Reson. Med. 2003; 50: 12291236.
  • 134
    Glüer CC, Blake G, Lu Y, Blunt BA, Jergas M, Genant HK. Accurate assessment of precision errors: how to measure the reproducibility of bone densitometry techniques. Osteoporos. Int. 1995; 5: 262270.
  • 135
    Stammberger T, Eckstein F, Englmeier KH, Reiser M. Determination of 3D cartilage thickness data from MR imaging: computational method and reproducibility in the living. Magn. Reson. Med. 1999; 41: 529536.
  • 136
    Bauer J, Ross C, Li X, Carballido-Gamio J, Banerjee S, Krug R, Ozhinsky E, Majumdar S, Link TM. Optimization and reproducibility evaluation of volumtetric cartilage measurements of the knee at 1.5 T and 3 T. Proceedings of the ISMRM Miami 2005.
  • 137
    Eckstein F, Westhoff J, Sittek H, Maag KP, Haubner M, Faber S, Englmeier KH, Reiser M. In vivo reproducibility of three-dimensional cartilage volume and thickness measurements with MR imaging. AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 1998; 170: 593597.
  • 138
    McWalter EJ, Wirth W, Siebert M, Eisenhart-Rothe RM, Hudelmaier M, Wilson DR, Eckstein F. Use of novel interactive input devices for segmentation of articular cartilage from magnetic resonance images. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2005; 13: 4853.
  • 139
    von Eisenhart-Rothe R, Graichen H, Hudelmaier M, Vogl T, Sharma L, Eckstein F. Femorotibial and patellar cartilage loss in patients prior to total knee arthroplasty, heterogeneity and correlation with alignment of the knee. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2006; 65(1): 6973.
  • 140
    Cicuttini FM, Wluka AE, Forbes A, Wolfe R. Comparison of tibial cartilage volume and radiologic grade of the tibiofemoral joint. Arthritis Rheum. 2003; 48: 682688.
  • 141
    Hudelmaier M, Glaser C, Englmeier KH, Reiser M, Putz R, Eckstein F. Correlation of knee-joint cartilage morphology with muscle cross-sectional areas vs anthropometric variables. Anat. Rec. 2003; 270A: 175184.
  • 142
    Hunter D, Niu J, Zhang Q, McLennan C, LaValley M, Tu X, Hudelmaier M, Eckstein F, Felson D. Cartilage volume must be normalized to bone surface area in order to provide staisfactory construct validity: The Framingham Study. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2004; 12(Suppl. B): S2.
  • 143
    Eckstein F, Siedek V, Glaser C, Al Ali D, Englmeier KH, Reiser M, Graichen H. Correlation and sex differences between ankle and knee cartilage morphology determined by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2004; 63: 1490 1495.
  • 144
    Wluka AE, Wolfe R, Davis SR, Stuckey S, Cicuttini FM. Tibial cartilage volume change in healthy postmenopausal women: a longitudinal study. Ann. Rheum Dis. 2004; 63: 444449.
  • 145
    Hanna F, Ebeling PR, Wang Y, O'Sullivan R, Davis S, Wluka AE, Cicuttini FM. Factors influencing longitudinal change in knee cartilage volume measured from magnetic resonance imaging in healthy men. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2005; 64: 10381042.
  • 146
    Wluka AE, Stuckey S, Snaddon J, Cicuttini FM. The determinants of change in tibial cartilage volume in osteoarthritic knees. Arthritis Rheum. 2002; 46: 20652072.
  • 147
    Cicuttini FM, Wluka AE, Wang Y, Stuckey SL. Longitudinal study of changes in tibial and femoral cartilage in knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 9497.
  • 148
    Gandy SJ, Dieppe PA, Keen MC, Maciewicz RA, Watt I, Waterton JC. No loss of cartilage volume over three years in patients with knee osteoarthritis as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2002; 10: 929937.
  • 149
    Wang Y, Wluka AE, Cicuttini FM. The determinants of change in tibial plateau bone area in osteoarthritic knees: a cohort study. Arthritis Res. Ther. 2005; 7: R687R693.
  • 150
    Cicuttini FM, Teichtahl AJ, Wluka AE, Davis S, Strauss BJ, Ebeling PR. The relationship between body composition and knee cartilage volume in healthy, middle-aged subjects. Arthritis Rheum. 2005; 52: 461467.
  • 151
    Cicuttini F, Ding C, Wluka A, Davis S, Ebeling PR, Jones G. Association of cartilage defects with loss of knee cartilage in healthy, middle-age adults: a prospective study. Arthritis Rheum. 2005; 52: 20332039.
  • 152
    Cicuttini F, Wluka A, Hankin J, Wang Y. Longitudinal study of the relationship between knee angle and tibiofemoral cartilage volume in subjects with knee osteoarthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2004; 43: 321324.
  • 153
    Berthiaume MJ, Raynauld JP, Martel-Pelletier J, Labonte F, Beaudoin G, Bloch DA, Choquette D, Haraoui B, Altman RD, Hochberg M, Meyer JM, Cline GA, Pelletier JP. Meniscal tear and extrusion are strongly associated with progression of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis as assessed by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2005; 64: 556563.
  • 154
    Phan CM, Link TM, Blumenkrantz G, Dunn TC, Ries MD, Steinbach LS, Majumdar S. MR imaging findings in the follow-up of patients with different stages of knee osteoarthritis and the correlation with clinical symptoms. Eur. Radiol. 2006; 16(3): 608618.
  • 155
    Hunter DJ, March L, Sambrook PN. The association of cartilage volume with knee pain. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2003; 11: 725729.
  • 156
    Wluka AE, Wolfe R, Stuckey S, Cicuttini FM. How does tibial cartilage volume relate to symptoms in subjects with knee osteoarthritis? Ann. Rheum Dis. 2004; 63: 264268.
  • 157
    Cicuttini F, Wluka A, Wang Y, Stuckey S. The determinants of change in patella cartilage volume in osteoarthritic knees. J. Rheumatol. 2002; 29: 26152619.
  • 158
    Cicuttini FM, Jones G, Forbes A, Wluka AE. Rate of cartilage loss at two years predicts subsequent total knee arthroplasty: a prospective study. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2004; 63: 11241127.
  • 159
    Xia Y, Moody JB, Alhadlaq H. Orientational dependence of T2 relaxation in articular cartilage: a microscopic MRI (microMRI) study. Magn. Reson. Med. 2002; 48: 460469.
  • 160
    Filidoro L, Dietrich O, Weber J, Rauch E, Oerther T, Wick M, Reiser MF, Glaser C. High-resolution diffusion tensor imaging of human patellar cartilage: feasibility and preliminary findings. Magn. Reson. Med. 2005; 53: 993998.
  • 161
    Burstein D, Gray ML, Hartman AL, Gipe R, Foy BD. Diffusion of small solutes in cartilage as measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging. J. Orthop. Res. 1993; 11: 465478.
  • 162
    Menezes NM, Gray ML, Hartke JR, Burstein D. T2 and T1rho MRI in articular cartilage systems. Magn. Reson. Med. 2004; 51: 503509.
  • 163
    Gray ML, Burstein D, Lesperance LM, Gehrke L. Magnetization transfer in cartilage and its constituent macromolecules. Magn. Reson. Med. 1995; 34: 319325.
  • 164
    Knauss R, Schiller J, Fleischer G, Karger J, Arnold K. Self-diffusion of water in cartilage and cartilage components as studied by pulsed field gradient NMR. Magn. Reson. Med. 1999; 41: 285292.
  • 165
    Schiller J, Naji L, Trampel R, Ngwa W, Knauss R, Arnold K. Pulsed-field gradient-nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG NMR) to measure the diffusion of ions and polymers in cartilage: applications in joint diseases. Methods Mol. Med. 2004; 101: 287302.
  • 166
    Mlynarik V, Sulzbacher I, Bittsansky M, Fuiko R, Trattnig S. Investigation of apparent diffusion constant as an indicator of early degenerative disease in articular cartilage. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging. 2003; 17: 440444.
  • 167
    Lesperance LM, Gray ML, Burstein D. Determination of fixed charge density in cartilage using nuclear magnetic resonance. J. Orthop. Res. 1992; 10: 113.
  • 168
    Borthakur A, Charagundla SR, Wheaton A, Reddy R. T1rho-weighted MRI using a surface coil to transmit spin-lock pulses. J. Magn. Reson. 2004; 167: 306316.
  • 169
    Bashir A, Gray ML, Hartke J, Burstein D. Nondestructive imaging of human cartilage glycosaminoglycan concentration by MRI. Magn. Reson. Med. 1999; 41: 857865.
  • 170
    Mosher TJ, Dardzinski BJ. Cartilage MRI T2 relaxation time mapping: overview and applications. Semin. Musculoskelet. Radiol. 2004; 8: 355368.
  • 171
    Lehner KB, Rechl HP, Gmeinwieser JK, Heuck AF, Lukas HP, Kohl HP. Structure, function and degeneration of bovine hyaline cartilage: assessment with MR imaging in vitro. Radiology 1989; 170: 495499.
  • 172
    Mosher TJ, Smith H, Dardzinski BJ, Schmithorst VJ, Smith MB. MR imaging and T2 mapping of femoral cartilage: in vivo determination of the magic angle effect. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2001; 177: 665669.
  • 173
    Dardzinski BJ, Mosher TJ, Li S, Van Slyke MA, Smith MB. Spatial variation of T2 in human articular cartilage. Radiology 1997; 205: 546550.
  • 174
    Goodwin DW, Wadghiri YZ, Zhu H, Vinton CJ, Smith ED, Dunn JF. Macroscopic structure of articular cartilage of the tibial plateau: influence of a characteristic matrix architecture on MRI appearance. AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 2004; 182: 311318.
  • 175
    Mosher TJ, Collins CM, Smith HE, Moser LE, Sivarajah RT, Dardzinski BJ, Smith MB. Effect of gender on in vivo cartilage magnetic resonance imaging T2 mapping. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2004; 19: 323328.
  • 176
    Liess C, Lüsse S, Karger N, Heller M, Glüer CC. Detection of changes in cartilage water content using MRI T2-mapping in vivo. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2002; 10: 907913.
  • 177
    Duvvuri U, Reddy R, Patel SD, Kaufman JH, Kneeland JB, Leigh JS. T1rho-relaxation in articular cartilage: effects of enzymatic degradation. Magn. Reson. Med. 1997; 38: 863867.
  • 178
    Akella SV, Regatte RR, Gougoutas AJ, Borthakur A, Shapiro EM, Kneeland JB, Leigh JS, Reddy R. Proteoglycan-induced changes in T1rho-relaxation of articular cartilage at 4 T. Magn. Reson. Med. 2001; 46: 419423.
  • 179
    Regatte RR, Akella SV, Borthakur A, Kneeland JB, Reddy R. Proteoglycan depletion-induced changes in transverse relaxation maps of cartilage: comparison of T2 and T1rho. Acad. Radiol. 2002; 9: 13881394.
  • 180
    Wheaton AJ, Casey FL, Gougoutas AJ, Dodge GR, Borthakur A, Lonner JH, Schumacher HR, Reddy R. Correlation of T1rho with fixed charge density in cartilage. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2004; 20: 519525.
  • 181
    Li X, Han ET, Ma CB, Link TM, Newitt DC, Majumdar S. In vivo 3 T spiral imaging based multi-slice T(1rho) mapping of knee cartilage in osteoarthritis. Magn. Reson. Med. 2005; 54: 929 936.
  • 182
    Wheaton AJ, Dodge GR, Elliott DM, Nicoll SB, Reddy R. Quantification of cartilage biomechanical and biochemical properties via T(1rho) magnetic resonance imaging. Magn. Reson. Med. 2005; 54: 10871093.
  • 183
    Watanabe A, Wada Y, Obata T, Ueda T, Tamura M, Ikehira H, Moriya H. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MR to determine glycosaminoglycan concentration in reparative cartilage after autologous chondrocyte implantation: preliminary results. Radiology 2006; 239: 201208.
  • 184
    Maier CF, Tan SG, Hariharan H, Potter HG. T2 quantitation of articular cartilage at 1.5 T. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2003; 17: 358364.
  • 185
    Mendlik T, Faber SC, Weber J, Hohe J, Rauch E, Reiser M, Glaser C. T2 quantitation of human articular cartilage in a clinical setting at 1.5 T: implementation and testing of four multiecho pulse sequence designs for validity. Invest. Radiol. 2004; 39: 288299.
  • 186
    Van B I, Bosmans HT, Elst LV, Maes F, Pans SD, Brys PP, Geusens EA, Marchal GJ. T2 mapping of human femorotibial cartilage with turbo mixed MR imaging at 1.5 T: feasibility. Radiology 2004; 233: 609614.
  • 187
    Van Breuseghem I, Palmieri F, Peeters RR, Maes F, Bosmans HT, Marchal GJ. Combined T1–T2 mapping of human femoro-tibial cartilage with turbo-mixed imaging at 1.5 T. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2005; 22: 368372.
  • 188
    Wheaton AJ, Borthakur A, Charagundla SR, Reddy R. Pulse sequence for multislice T1rho-weighted MRI. Magn. Reson. Med 2004; 51: 362369.
  • 189
    Wheaton AJ, Borthakur A, Corbo M, Charagundla SR, Reddy R. Method for reduced SAR T1rho-weighted MRI. Magn. Reson. Med. 2004; 51: 10961102.
  • 190
    Kimelman T, McKenzie C, Williams A, Burstein D, Prasad P. 3-D T1 mapping for dGEMRIC at 3.0 T using Look–Locker method. Invest. Radiol. 2006; 41(2): 198203.
  • 191
    Wheaton AJ, Borthakur A, Reddy R. Application of the keyhole technique to T1rho relaxation mapping. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2003; 18: 745749.
  • 192
    Nieminen MT, Menezes NM, Williams A, Burstein D. T2 of articular cartilage in the presence of Gd-DTPA2−. Magn Reson. Med. 2004; 51: 11471152.
  • 193
    Hohe J, Faber S, Stammberger T, Reiser M, Englmeier KH, Eckstein F. A technique for 3D in vivo quantification of proton density and magnetization transfer coefficients of knee joint cartilage. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2000; 8: 426433.
  • 194
    Hohe J, Faber S, Muehlbauer R, Reiser M, Englmeier KH, Eckstein F. Three-dimensional analysis and visualization of regional MR signal intensity distribution of articular cartilage. Med. Eng. Phys. 2002; 24: 219227.
  • 195
    Mosher TJ, Liu Y, Yang QX, Yao J, Smith R, Dardzinski BJ, Smith MB. Age dependency of cartilage magnetic resonance imaging T2 relaxation times in asymptomatic women. Arthritis Rheum. 2004; 50: 28202828.
  • 196
    Mosher TJ, Smith HE, Collins C, Liu Y, Hancy J, Dardzinski BJ, Smith MB. Change in knee cartilage T2 at MR imaging after running: a feasibility study. Radiology 2005; 234: 245249.
  • 197
    Dunn TC, Lu Y, Jin H, Ries MD, Majumdar S. T2 relaxation time of cartilage at MR imaging: comparison with severity of knee osteoarthritis. Radiology 2004; 232: 592598.
  • 198
    Regatte RR, Akella SV, Wheaton AJ, Lech G, Borthakur A, Kneeland JB, Reddy R. 3D-T1rho-relaxation mapping of articular cartilage: in vivo assessment of early degenerative changes in symptomatic osteoarthritic subjects. Acad. Radiol. 2004; 11: 741749.
  • 199
    Tiderius CJ, Olsson LE, Leander P, Ekberg O, Dahlberg L. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) in early knee osteoarthritis. Magn. Reson. Med. 2003; 49: 488492.
  • 200
    Tiderius CJ, Svensson J, Leander P, Ola T, Dahlberg L. dGEMRIC (delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage) indicates adaptive capacity of human knee cartilage. Magn. Reson. Med. 2004; 51: 286290.
  • 201
    Kim YJ, Jaramillo D, Millis MB, Gray ML, Burstein D. Assessment of early osteoarthritis in hip dysplasia with delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 2003; 85A: 19871992.
  • 202
    Williams A, Sharma L, McKenzie CA, Prasad PV, Burstein D. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage in knee osteoarthritis: findings at different radiographic stages of disease and relationship to malalignment. Arthritis Rheum. 2005; 52: 35283535.
  • 203
    Tiderius CJ, Olsson LE, Nyquist F, Dahlberg L. Cartilage glycosaminoglycan loss in the acute phase after an anterior cruciate ligament injury: delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage and synovial fluid analysis. Arthritis Rheum. 2005; 52: 120127.
  • 204
    Young AA, Stanwell P, Williams A, Rohrsheim JA, Parker DA, Giuffre B, Ellis AM. Glycosaminoglycan content of knee cartilage following posterior cruciate ligament rupture demonstrated by delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC). A case report. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 2005; 87: 27632767.
  • 205
    Lynch JA, Hawkes DJ, Buckland-Wright JC. Analysis of texture in macroradiographs of osteoarthritic knees using the fractal signature. Phys. Med. Biol. 1991; 36: 709722.
  • 206
    Buckland-Wright JC, Lynch JA, Macfarlane DG. Fractal signature analysis measures cancellous bone organisation in macroradiographs of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 1996; 55: 749755.
  • 207
    Lindsey CT, Narasimhan A, Adolfo JM, Jin H, Steinbach LS, Link T, Ries M, Majumdar S. Magnetic resonance evaluation of the interrelationship between articular cartilage and trabecular bone of the osteoarthritic knee. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2004; 12: 8696.
  • 208
    Phan C, Matsuura M, Bauer J, Dunn TC, Newitt D, Lochmüller EM, Eckstein F, Majumdar S, Link TM. Trabecular bone structure of the calcaneus: comparison of high resolution MR imaging at 3.0 and 1.0 T using microCT as a standard of reference. Radiology 2006; 239(2): 488496.
  • 209
    Wald LL, Carvajal L, Moyher SE, Nelson SJ, Grant PE, Barkovich AJ, Vigneron DB. Phased array detectors and an automated intensity-correction algorithm for high-resolution MR imaging of the human brain. Magn. Reson. Med. 1995; 34: 433439.
  • 210
    Majumdar S, Newitt D, Mathur A, Osman D, Gies A, Chiu E, Lotz J, Kinney J, Genant H. Magnetic resonance imaging of trabecular bone structure in the distal radius: relationship with X-ray tomographic microscopy and biomechanics. Osteoporos. Int. 1996; 6: 376385.
  • 211
    Parfitt AM, Drezner MK, Glorieux FH, Kanis JA, Malluche H, Meunier PJ, Ott SM, Recker RR. Bone histomorphometry: standardization of nomenclature, symbols and units. Report of the ASBMR Histomorphometry Nomenclature Committee. J. Bone Miner. Res. 1987; 2: 595610.
  • 212
    Parfitt AM. Bone histomorphometry: standardization of nomenclature, symbols and units. Summary of proposed system. Bone Miner. 1988; 4: 15.
  • 213
    Boehm HF, Raeth C, Monetti RA, Mueller D, Newitt D, Majumdar S, Rummeny E, Morfill G, Link TM. Local 3D scaling properties for the analysis of trabecular bone extracted from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of human trabecular bone: comparison with bone mineral density in the prediction of biomechanical strength in vitro. Invest. Radiol. 2003; 38: 269280.
  • 214
    Cortet B, Dubois P, Boutry N, Palos G, Cotten A, Marchandise X. Computed tomography image analysis of the calcaneus in male osteoporosis. Osteoporos. Int. 2002; 13: 3341.
  • 215
    Wehrli FW, Gomberg BR, Saha PK, Song HK, Hwang SN, Snyder PJ. Digital topological analysis of in vivo magnetic resonance microimages of trabecular bone reveals structural implications of osteoporosis. J. Bone Miner. Res. 2001; 16: 15201531.
  • 216
    Wehrli FW, Leonard MB, Saha PK, Gomberg BR. Quantitative high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging reveals structural implications of renal osteodystrophy on trabecular and cortical bone. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging. 2004; 20: 8389.
  • 217
    Newitt DC, Van Rietbergen B, Majumdar S. Processing and analysis of in vivo high-resolution MR images of trabecular bone for longitudinal studies: reproducibility of structural measures and micro-finite element analysis derived mechanical properties. Osteoporos. Int. 2002; 13: 278287.
  • 218
    Layton MW, Goldstein SA, Goulet RW, Feldkamp LA, Kubinski DJ, Bole GG. Examination of subchondral bone architecture in experimental osteoarthritis by microscopic computed axial tomography. Arthritis Rheum. 1988; 31: 14001405.
  • 219
    Dedrick DK, Goulet R, Huston L, Goldstein SA, Bole GG. Early bone changes in experimental osteoarthritis using microscopic computed tomography. J. Rheumatol. Suppl. 1991; 27: 4445.
  • 220
    Dedrick DK, Goldstein SA, Brandt KD, O'Connor BL, Goulet RW, Albrecht M. A longitudinal study of subchondral plate and trabecular bone in cruciate-deficient dogs with osteoarthritis followed up for 54 months. Arthritis Rheum. 1993; 36: 14601467.
  • 221
    Jones G, Ding C, Scott F, Glisson M, Cicuttini F. Early radiographic osteoarthritis is associated with substantial changes in cartilage volume and tibial bone surface area in both males and females. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2004; 12: 169174.
  • 222
    Wluka AE, Wang Y, Davis SR, Cicuttini FM. Tibial plateau size is related to grade of joint space narrowing and osteophytes in healthy women and in women with osteoarthritis. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2005; 64: 10331037.
  • 223
    Cicuttini FM, Wang YY, Forbes A, Wluka AE, Glisson M. Comparison between patella cartilage volume and radiological assessment of the patellofemoral joint. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 2003; 21: 321326.
  • 224
    Amin S, LaValley MP, Guermazi A, Grigoryan M, Hunter DJ, Clancy M, Niu J, Gale DR, Felson DT. The relationship between cartilage loss on magnetic resonance imaging and radiographic progression in men and women with knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2005; 52: 31523159.
  • 225
    Cicuttini FM, Wluka AE, Hankin J, Stuckey S. Comparison of patella cartilage volume and radiography in the assessment of longitudinal joint change at the patellofemoral joint. J. Rheumatol. 2004; 31: 13691372.
  • 226
    Cicuttini F, Hankin J, Jones G, Wluka A. Comparison of conventional standing knee radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging in assessing progression of tibiofemoral joint osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2005; 13: 722727.
  • 227
    Sittek H, Eckstein F, Gavazzeni A, Milz S, Kiefer B, Schulte E, Reiser M. Assessment of normal patellar cartilage volume and thickness using MRI: an analysis of currently available pulse sequences. Skeletal Radiol. 1996; 25: 5562.
  • 228
    Kladny B, Bail H, Swoboda B, Schiwy-Bochat H, Beyer WF, Weseloh G. Cartilage thickness measurement in magnetic resonance imaging. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1996; 4: 181186.
  • 229
    Eckstein F, Adam C, Sittek H, Becker C, Milz S, Schulte E, Reiser M, Putz R. Non-invasive determination of cartilage thickness throughout joint surfaces using magnetic resonance imaging. J. Biomech. 1997; 30: 285289.
  • 230
    Pilch L, Stewart C, Gordon D, Inman R, Parsons K, Pataki I, Stevens J. Assessment of cartilage volume in the femorotibial joint with magnetic resonance imaging and 3D computer reconstruction. J. Rheumatol. 1994; 21: 23072321.
  • 231
    Tieschky M, Faber S, Haubner M, Kolem H, Schulte E, Englmeier KH, Reiser M, Eckstein F. Repeatability of patellar cartilage thickness patterns in the living, using a fat-suppressed magnetic resonance imaging sequence with short acquisition time and three-dimensional data processing. J. Orthop. Res. 1997; 15: 808813.
  • 232
    Jones G, Glisson M, Hynes K, Cicuttini F. Sex and site differences in cartilage development: a possible explanation for variations in knee osteoarthritis in later life. Arthritis Rheum. 2000; 43: 25432549.
  • 233
    Eckstein F, Lemberger B, Stammberger T, Englmeier KH, Reiser M. Patellar cartilage deformation in vivo after static versus dynamic loading. J. Biomech. 2000; 33: 819825.
  • 234
    Cicuttini FM, Wluka AE, Stuckey SL. Tibial and femoral cartilage changes in knee osteoarthritis. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2001; 60: 977980.
  • 235
    Sitoci KH, Hudelmaier M, Glaser C, Englmeier KH, Reiser M, Eckstein F. Nocturnal changes of cartilage morphology in healthy subjects. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2003; 11(Suppl. A): S95 [abstract].
  • 236
    Peterfy C, White D, Zhao J, VanDijke CF, Genant HK. Longitudinal measurement of knee articular cartilage volume in osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1998; 41(Suppl. 9): S361 [abstract].
  • 237
    Wluka AE, Stuckey S, Brand C, Cicuttini FM. Supplementary vitamin E does not affect the loss of cartilage volume in knee osteoarthritis: a 2 year double blind randomized placebo controlled study. J. Rheumatol. 2002; 29: 25852591.
  • 238
    Glaser C, Draeger M, Englmeier KH, Eckstein F, Reiser M. Cartilage loss over two years in femorotibial osteoarthritis. Radiology 2002; 225(Suppl.): 330 [abstract].