This article is published in NMR in Biomedicine as a special issue on Progress in Diffusion-Weighted Imaging: Concepts, Techniques, and Applications to the Central Nervous System, edited by Jens H. Jensen and Joseph A. Helpern, Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
Special Issue Review Article
MRI quantification of non-Gaussian water diffusion by kurtosis analysis†
Article first published online: 19 MAY 2010
Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
NMR in Biomedicine
Special Issue: Progress in Diffusion-Weighted Imaging: Concepts, Techniques, and Applications to the Central Nervous System
Volume 23, Issue 7, pages 698–710, August 2010
How to Cite
Jensen, J. H. and Helpern, J. A. (2010), MRI quantification of non-Gaussian water diffusion by kurtosis analysis. NMR Biomed., 23: 698–710. doi: 10.1002/nbm.1518
- Issue published online: 19 MAY 2010
- Article first published online: 19 MAY 2010
- Manuscript Accepted: 6 JAN 2010
- Manuscript Revised: 5 JAN 2010
- Manuscript Received: 31 AUG 2009
- National Institutes of Health. Grant Numbers: 1R01AG027852, 1R01EB007656
- Litwin Foundation for Alzheimer's Research
- Werner Dannheisser Trust
- Institute for the Study of Aging
Quantification of non-Gaussianity for water diffusion in brain by means of diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) is reviewed. Diffusional non-Gaussianity is a consequence of tissue structure that creates diffusion barriers and compartments. The degree of non-Gaussianity is conveniently quantified by the diffusional kurtosis and derivative metrics, such as the mean, axial, and radial kurtoses. DKI is a diffusion-weighted MRI technique that allows the diffusional kurtosis to be estimated with clinical scanners using standard diffusion-weighted pulse sequences and relatively modest acquisition times. DKI is an extension of the widely used diffusion tensor imaging method, but requires the use of at least 3 b-values and 15 diffusion directions. This review discusses the underlying theory of DKI as well as practical considerations related to data acquisition and post-processing. It is argued that the diffusional kurtosis is sensitive to diffusional heterogeneity and suggested that DKI may be useful for investigating ischemic stroke and neuropathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.