Fluorine (19F) MRS and MRI in biomedicine

Authors

  • Jesús Ruiz-Cabello,

    1. Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Division of MR Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    2. Vascular Biology Program and Cellular Imaging Section, Institute for Cell Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
    3. NMR Group, Institute of Functional Studies, Complutense University and CIBERES, Madrid, Spain
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  • Brad P. Barnett,

    1. Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Division of MR Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    2. Vascular Biology Program and Cellular Imaging Section, Institute for Cell Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
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  • Paul A. Bottomley,

    1. Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Division of MR Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
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  • Jeff W.M. Bulte

    Corresponding author
    1. Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Division of MR Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    2. Vascular Biology Program and Cellular Imaging Section, Institute for Cell Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
    3. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    4. Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    • Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 217 Traylor Bldg, 720 Rutland Ave., Baltimore, MD 21205-2195, USA.
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Abstract

Shortly after the introduction of 1H MRI, fluorinated molecules were tested as MR-detectable tracers or contrast agents. Many fluorinated compounds, which are nontoxic and chemically inert, are now being used in a broad range of biomedical applications, including anesthetics, chemotherapeutic agents, and molecules with high oxygen solubility for respiration and blood substitution. These compounds can be monitored by fluorine (19F) MRI and/or MRS, providing a noninvasive means to interrogate associated functions in biological systems. As a result of the lack of endogenous fluorine in living organisms, 19F MRI of ‘hotspots’ of targeted fluorinated contrast agents has recently opened up new research avenues in molecular and cellular imaging. This includes the specific targeting and imaging of cellular surface epitopes, as well as MRI cell tracking of endogenous macrophages, injected immune cells and stem cell transplants. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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