Previous studies have provided evidence of structural and task-related functional changes in the brains of patients with migraine without aura. Resting-state brain activity in patients with migraine provides clues to the pathophysiology of the disease. However, few studies have focused on the resting-state abnormalities in patients with migraine without aura. In the current study, we employed a data-driven method, regional homogeneity (ReHo), to analyze the local features of spontaneous brain activity in patients with migraine without aura during the resting state. Twenty-six patients with migraine without aura and 26 age-, education- and gender-matched healthy volunteers participated in this study. Compared with healthy controls, patients with migraine without aura showed a significant decrease in ReHo values in the right rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the supplementary motor area (SMA). In addition, we found that ReHo values were negatively correlated with the duration of disease in the right rACC and PFC. Our results suggest that the resting-state abnormalities of these regions may be associated with functional impairments in pain processing in patients with migraine without aura. We hope that our results will improve the understanding of migraine. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.