• 1
    Keen CL, Ensunsa JL, Clegg MS. Manganese metabolism in animals and humans including the toxicity of manDganese. In Manganese and its Role in Biological Processes, SigelA, SigelH (eds). Marcel Dekker: New York, 2000; 89121.
  • 2
    Carl GF, Gallagher BB. Manganese and epilepsy. In Manganese in Health and Disease, Klimis-TavantzisDJ (ed.). CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 1994; 133143.
  • 3
    Wedler FC, Denman RB. Glutamine synthetase: the major Mn(II) enzyme in mammalian brain. Curr. Top. Cell Regul. 1984; 24: 153169.
  • 4
    Dickerson RN. Manganese intoxication and parenteral nutrition. Nutrition 2001; 17(7–8): 689693.
  • 5
    Friedman BJ, Freeland-Graves JH, Bales CW, Behmardi F, Shorey-Kutschke RL, Willis RA, Crosby JB, Trickett PC, Houston SD. Manganese balance and clinical observations in young men fed a manganese-deficient diet. J. Nutr. 1987; 117(1): 133143.
  • 6
    Strause LG, Hegenauer J, Saltman P, Cone R, Resnick D. Effects of long-term dietary manganese and copper deficiency on rat skeleton. J. Nutr. 1986; 116(1): 135141.
  • 7
    Strause LG, Saltman P. Role of manganese in bone metabolism. In Nutritional Bioavailability of Manganese, KiesC (ed.). American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1987; 46.
  • 8
    Hall AJ, Margetts BM, Barker DJ, Walsh HP, Redfern TR, Taylor JF, Dangerfield P, Delves HT, Shuttler IL. Low blood manganese levels in Liverpool children with Perthes' disease. Paediatr. Perinat. Epidemiol. 1989; 3(2): 131135.
  • 9
    Lee J-W. Manganese Intoxication. Arch. Neurol. 2000; 57(4): 597599.
  • 10
    Barbeau A. Manganese and extrapyramidal disorders (a critical review and tribute to Dr. George C. Cotzias). NeuroToxicology 1984; 5(1): 1335.
  • 11
    Mena I, Marin O, Fuenzalida S, Cotzias GC. Chronic manganese poisoning: clinical picture and manganese turnover. Neurology 1967; 17(2): 128136.
  • 12
    Inoue N, Makita Y. Neurological aspects in human exposures to manganese. In Toxicology of Metals, ChangLW (ed.). CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 1996; 415421.
  • 13
    Zheng W, Kim H, Zhao Q. Comparative toxicokinetics of manganese chloride and methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) in Sprague–Dawley rats. Toxicol. Sci. 2000; 54(2): 295301.
  • 14
    Furchner JE, Richmond CR, Drake GA. Comparative metabolism of radionuclides in mammals—3: retention of manganese-54 in the mouse, rat, monkey and dog. Health Phys. 1966; 12(10): 14151423.
  • 15
    Davidsson L, Cederblad A, Lonnerdal B, Sandström B. Manganese retention in man: a method for estimating manganese absorption in man. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1989; 49(1): 170179.
  • 16
    Zheng W, Ren S, Graziano JH. Manganese inhibits mitochondrial aconitase: a mechanism of manganese neurotoxicity. Brain Res. 1998; 799(2): 334342.
  • 17
    Dastur DK, Manghani DK, Raghavendran KV. Distribution and fate of 54Mn in the monkey: studies of different parts of the central nervous system and other organs. J. Clin. Invest. 1971; 50(1): 920.
  • 18
    Dastur DK, Manghani DK, Raghavendran KV, Jeejeebhoy KN. Distribution and fate of Mn54 in the rat, with special reference to the C.N.S. Q. J. Exp. Physiol. Cogn. Med. Sci. 1969; 54(3): 322331.
  • 19
    Manghani DK, Dastur DK, Jeejeebhoy KN, Raghavendran KV. Effect of stable manganese on the fate of radiomanganese in the rat with special reference to the CNS. Ind. J. Med. Res. 1970; 58(2): 209215.
  • 20
    Drown DB, Oberg SG, Sharma RP. Pulmonary clearance of soluble and insoluble forms of manganese. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 1986; 17(2–3): 201212.
  • 21
    Takeda A, Sawashita J, Okada S. Biological half-lives of zinc and manganese in rat brain. Brain Res. 1995; 695(1): 5358.
  • 22
    Dietz MC, Ihrig A, Wrazidlo W, Bader M, Jansen O, Triebig G. Results of magnetic resonance imaging in long-term manganese dioxide-exposed workers. Environ. Res. 2001; 85(1): 3740.
  • 23
    Boojar MM, Goodarzi F. A longitudinal follow-up of pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in workers exposed to manganese. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 2002; 44(3): 282290.
  • 24
    Newland MC, Cox C, Hamada R, Oberdorster G, Weiss B. The clearance of manganese chloride in the primate. Fund. Appl. Toxicol. 1987; 9(2): 314328.
  • 25
    Lu L, Zhang L-l, Li GJ, Guo W, Liang W, Zheng W. Serum concentrations of manganese and iron as the potential biomarkers for manganese exposure in welders. Neurotoxicology 2004; (in press).
  • 26
    Pardridge WM. Drug delivery to the brain. J. Cerebr. Blood Flow Metab. 1997; 17(7): 713731.
  • 27
    Zheng W, Aschner M, Ghersi-Egea JF. Brain barrier systems: a new frontier in metal neurotoxicological research. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmac. 2003; 192(1): 111.
  • 28
    Keep RF, Jones HC. A morphometric study on the development of the lateral ventricle choroid plexus, choroid plexus capillaries and ventricular ependyma in the rat. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. 1990; 56(1): 4753.
  • 29
    Murphy VA, Wadhwani KC, Smith QR, Rapoport SI. Saturable transport of manganese(II) across the rat blood–brain barrier. J. Neurochem. 1991; 57(3): 948954.
  • 30
    Rabin O, Hegedus L, Bourre JM, Smith QR. Rapid brain uptake of manganese (II) across the blood–brain barrier. J. Neurochem. 1993; 61: 509517.
  • 31
    Crossgrove JS, Allen DD, Bukaveckas BL, Rhineheimer SS, Yokel RA. Manganese distribution across the blood–brain barrier I: evidence for carrier-mediated influx of manganese citrate as well as manganese and manganese transferrin. NeuroToxicology 2003; 24: 313.
  • 32
    Aschner M, Gannon M. Manganese (Mn) transport across the rat blood–brain barrier: saturable and transferrin-dependent transport mechanisms. Brain Res. Bull. 1994; 33(3): 345349.
  • 33
    Aschner M, Aschner JL. Manganese transport across the blood-brain barrier: relationship to iron homeostasis. Brain Res. Bull. 1990; 24(6): 857860.
  • 34
    Murphy VA, Smith QR, Rapoport SI. Saturable transport of Ca into CSF in chronic hypo- and hypercalcemia. J. Neurosci. Res. 1991; 30(2): 421426.
  • 35
    Mason MJ, Mayer B, Hymel LJ. Inhibition of Ca2+ transport pathways in thymic lymphocytes by econazole, miconazole, and SKF 96365. Am. J. Physiol. 1993; 264(3 Pt 1): C654C662.
  • 36
    Kerper LE, Hinkle PM. Cellular uptake of lead is activated by depletion of intracellular calcium stores. J. Biol. Chem. 1997; 272(13): 83468352.
  • 37
    Finley JW. Manganese uptake and release by cultured human hepato-carcinoma (Hep-G2) cells. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 1998; 64(1–3): 101118.
  • 38
    Takeda A. Manganese action in brain function. Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. 2003; 41(1): 7987.
  • 39
    Conrad ME, Umbreit JN, Moore EG, Hainsworth LN, Porubcin M, Simovich MJ, Nakada MT, Dolan K, Garrick MD. Separate pathways for cellular uptake of ferric and ferrous iron. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 2000; 279(4): G767G774.
  • 40
    Aschner M, Vrana KE, Zheng W. Manganese uptake and distribution in the central nervous system (CNS). NeuroToxicology 1999; 20(2–3): 173180.
  • 41
    Goddard WP, Coupland K, Smith JA, Long RG. Iron uptake by isolated human enterocyte suspensions in vitro is dependent on body iron stores and inhibited by other metal cations. J. Nutr. 1997; 127(1): 177183.
  • 42
    Gunshin H, Mackenzie B, Berger UV, Gunshin Y, Romero MF, Boron WF, Nussberger S, Gollan JL, Hediger MA. Cloning and characterization of a mammalian proton-coupled metal-ion transporter. Nature 1997; 388(6641): 482488.
  • 43
    Crossgrove JS, Yokel RA. Manganese distribution across the blood–brain barrier III: the divalent metal transporter-1 is not essential for brain manganese uptake. NeuroToxicology 2004; 25(3): 451460.
  • 44
    Moos T, Morgan EH. The significance of the mutated divalent metal transporter (DMT1) on iron transport into the Belgrade rat brain. J. Neurochem. 2004; 88(1): 233245.
  • 45
    Yokel RA, Crossgrove JS, Bukaveckas BL. Manganese distribution across the blood–brain barrier II: manganese efflux from the brain does not appear to be carrier mediated. NeuroToxicology 2003; 24: 1522.
  • 46
    Toft KG, Myrset AH, Skotland T. Dephosphorylation of MnDPDP and related compounds by acid and alkaline phosphatase. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2001; 25(3–4): 613618.
  • 47
    Schmidt PP, Toft KG, Skotland T, Andersson K. Stability and transmetallation of the magnetic resonance contrast agent MnDPDP measured by EPR. J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 2002; 7(3): 241248.
  • 48
    Hustvedt SO, Grant D, Southon TE, Zech K. Plasma pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of MnDPDP in the rat and dog after intravenous administration. Acta Radiol. 1997; 38(4 Pt 2): 690699.
  • 49
    Toft KG, Hustvedt SO, Grant D, Martinsen I, Gordon PB, Friisk GA, Korsmo AJ, Skotland T. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of MnDPDP in man. Acta Radiol. 1997; 38(4 Pt 2): 677689.
  • 50
    Harris WR, Chen Y. Electron paramagnetic resonance and difference ultraviolet studies of Mn2+ binding to serum transferrin. J. Inorg. Biochem. 1994; 54(1): 119.
  • 51
    Critchfield JW, Keen CL. Manganese+2 exhibits dynamic binding to multiple ligands in human plasma. Metabolism 1992; 41(10): 10871092.
  • 52
    Aisen P, Aasa R, Redfield AG. The chromium, manganese, and cobalt complexes of transferrin. J. Biol. Chem. 1969; 244(17): 46284633.
  • 53
    Chen JY, Tsao GC, Zhao Q, Zheng W. Differential cytotoxicity of Mn(II) and Mn(III): special reference to mitochondrial [Fe–S] containing enzymes. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmac. 2001; 175(2): 160168.
  • 54
    Reaney SH, Kwik-Uribe CL, Smith DR. Manganese oxidation state and its implications for toxicity. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2002; 15(9): 11191126.
  • 55
    Gunter TE, Miller LM, Gavin CE, Eliseev R, Salter J, Buntinas L, Alexandrov A, Hammond S, Gunter KK. Determination of the oxidation states of manganese in brain, liver, and heart mitochondria. J. Neurochem. 2004; 88(2): 266280.
  • 56
    Couper J. On the effects of black oxide of manganese when inhaled into the lungs. Br. Ann. Med. Pharm. Vital Stat. Gen. Sci. 1837; 1: 4142.
  • 57
    Keen CL, Lönnerdal B. Toxicity of essential and beneficial metal ions. Manganese. In Handbook of Metal-Ligand Interactions in Biological Fluids, BerthonG (ed.). Marcel Dekker: New York, 1995; 683688.
  • 58
    Huang CC, Chu NS, Lu CS, Wang JD, Tsai JL, Tzeng JL, Wolters EC, Calne DB. Chronic manganese intoxication. Arch. Neurol. 1989; 46(10): 11041106.
  • 59
    Chandra SV, Shukla GS, Srivastava RS, Singh H, Gupta VP. An exploratory study of manganese exposure to welders. Clin. Toxicol. 1981; 18(4): 407416.
  • 60
    Ono K, Komai K, Yamada M. Myoclonic involuntary movement associated with chronic manganese poisoning. J. Neurol. Sci. 2002; 199(1–2): 9396.
  • 61
    Wang D, Zhou W, Wang S, Zheng W. Occupational exposure to manganese in welders and associated neurodegenerative diseases in China. Toxicologist 1998; 42(1-S): 24.
  • 62
    Ferraz HB, Bertolucci PH, Pereira JS, Lima JG, Andrade LA. Chronic exposure to the fungicide maneb may produce symptoms and signs of CNS manganese intoxication. Neurology 1988; 38(4): 550553.
  • 63
    Ensing JG. Bazooka: cocaine-base and manganese carbonate. J. Anal. Toxicol. 1985; 9(1): 4546.
  • 64
    Hudnell HK. Effects from environmental Mn exposures: a review of the evidence from non-occupational exposure studies. NeuroToxicology 1999; 20(2–3): 379397.
  • 65
    Lynam DR, Roos JW, Pfeifer GD, Fort BF, Pullin TG. Environmental effects and exposures to manganese from use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) in gasoline. NeuroToxicology 1999; 20(2–3): 145150.
  • 66
    Reynolds JG, Roos JW, Wong J, Deutsch SE. Manganese particulates from vehicles using MMT fuel. In 15th International Neurotoxicology Conference, Little Rock, AK, 1997.
  • 67
    Lynam DR, Pfeifer GD, Fort BF, Gelbcke AA. Environmental assessment of MMT fuel additive. Sci. Total Environ. 1990; 93: 107114.
  • 68
    Kondakis XG, Makris N, Leotsinidis M, Prinou M, Papapetropoulos T. Possible health effects of high manganese concentration in drinking water. Arch. Environ. Health 1989; 44(3): 175178.
  • 69
    Iregren A. Manganese neurotoxicity in industrial exposures: proof of effects, critical exposure level, and sensitive tests. NeuroToxicology 1999; 20(2–3): 315323.
  • 70
    Olanow CW, Good PF, Shinotoh H, Hewitt KA, Vingerhoets F, Snow BJ, Beal MF, Calne DB, Perl DP. Manganese intoxication in the rhesus monkey: a clinical, imaging, pathologic, and biochemical study. Neurology 1996; 46(2): 492498.
  • 71
    Walter U, Niehaus L, Probst T, Benecke R, Meyer BU, Dressler D. Brain parenchyma sonography discriminates Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Neurology 2003; 60(1): 7477.
  • 72
    Yamada M, Ohno S, Okayasu I, Okeda R, Hatakeyama S, Watanabe H, Ushio K, Tsukagoshi H. Chronic manganese poisoning: a neuropathological study with determination of manganese distribution in the brain. Acta Neuropathol. 1986; 70(3–4): 273278.
  • 73
    Calne DB, Chu NS, Huang CC, Lu CS, Olanow W. Manganism and idiopathic parkinsonism: similarities and differences. Neurology 1994; 44(9): 15831586.
  • 74
    Mergler D. Neurotoxic effects of low level exposure to manganese in human populations. Environ. Res. 1999; 80(2 Pt 1): 99102.
  • 75
    Roels H, Lauwerys R, Buchet JP, Genet P, Sarhan MJ, Hanotiau I, de Fays M, Bernard A, Stanescu D. Epidemiological survey among workers exposed to manganese: effects on lung, central nervous system, and some biological indices. Am. J. Ind. Med. 1987; 11(3): 307327.
  • 76
    Roels HA, Ghyselen P, Buchet JP, Ceulemans E, Lauwerys RR. Assessment of the permissible exposure level to manganese in workers exposed to manganese dioxide dust. Br. J. Ind. Med. 1992; 49(1): 2534.
  • 77
    Lucchini R, Selis L, Folli D, Apostoli P, Mutti A, Vanoni O, Iregren A, Alessio L. Neurobehavioral effects of manganese in workers from a ferroalloy plant after temporary cessation of exposure. Scand. J. Environ. Health 1995; 21(2): 143149.
  • 78
    Lucchini R, Apostoli P, Perrone C, Placidi D, Albini E, Migliorati P, Mergler D, Sassine MP, Palmi S, Alessio L. Long-term exposure to ‘low levels’ of manganese oxides and neurofunctional changes in ferroalloy workers. NeuroToxicology 1999; 20(2–3): 287297.
  • 79
    Pal PK, Samii A, Calne DB. Manganese neurotoxicity: a review of clinical features, imaging and pathology. NeuroToxicology 1999; 20(2–3): 227238.
  • 80
    Ejima A, Imamura T, Nakamura S, Saito H, Matsumoto K, Momono S. Manganese intoxication during total parenteral nutrition. Lancet 1992; 339(8790): 426.
  • 81
    Ono J, Harada K, Kodaka R, Dakurai K, Hajiri H, Takagi Y, Nagai T, Harada T, Nihei a, Okada A, Okada S. Manganese deposition in the drain during long-term total parenteral nutrition. JPEN J. Parent. Enteral Nutr. 1995; 19(4): 310312.
  • 82
    Fitzgerald K, Mikalunas V, Rubin H, McCarthey R, Vanagunas A, Craig RM. Hypermanganesemia in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition. JPEN J. Parent. Enteral Nutr. 1999; 23(6): 333336.
  • 83
    Nagatomo S, Umehara F, Hanada K, Nobuhara Y, Takenaga S, Arimura K, Osame M. Manganese intoxication during total parenteral nutrition: report of two cases and review of the literature. J. Neurol. Sci. 1999; 162(1): 102105.
  • 84
    Masumoto K, Suita S, Taguchi T, Yamanouchi T, Nagano M, Ogita K, Nakamura M, Mihara F. Manganese intoxication during intermittent parenteral nutrition: report of two cases. JPEN J. Parent. Enteral Nutr. 2001; 25(2): 9599.
  • 85
    Verity MA. Manganese neurotoxicity: a mechanistic hypothesis. NeuroToxicology 1999; 20(2–3): 489497.
  • 86
    Ranasinghe JG, Liu MC, Sakakibara Y, Suiko M. Manganese administration induces the increased production of dopamine sulfate and depletion of dopamine in Sprague–Dawley rats. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 2000; 128(3): 477480.
  • 87
    Brouillet EP, Shinobu L, McGarvey U, Hochberg F, Beal MF. Manganese injection into the rat striatum produces excitotoxic lesions by impairing energy metabolism. Exp. Neurol. 1993; 120(1): 8994.
  • 88
    Eriksson H, Magiste K, Plantin LO, Fonnum F, Hedstrom KG, Theodorsson-Norheim E, Kristensson K, Stalberg E, Heilbronn E. Effects of manganese oxide on monkeys as revealed by a combined neurochemical, histological and neurophysiological evaluation. Arch. Toxicol. 1987; 61(1): 4652.
  • 89
    Zheng W, Zhao Q. Iron overload following manganese exposure in cultured neuronal, but not neuroglial cells. Brain Res. 2001; 897(1–2): 175179.
  • 90
    Zheng W, Zhao Q, Slavkovich V, Aschner M, Graziano JH. Alteration of iron homeostasis following chronic exposure to manganese in rats. Brain Res. 1999; 833(1): 125132.
  • 91
    Zheng W. Neurotoxicology of the brain barrier system: new implications. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. 2001; 39(7): 711719.
  • 92
    Lai JC, Minski MJ, Chan AW, Leung TK, Lim L. Manganese mineral interactions in brain. NeuroToxicology 1999; 20(2–3): 433444.
  • 93
    Kao HJ, Chen WH, Liu JS. Rapid progression of parkinsonism associated with an increase of blood manganese. Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci. 1999; 15(5): 297301.
  • 94
    Chua AC, Morgan EH. Effects of iron deficiency and iron overload on manganese uptake and deposition in the brain and other organs of the rat. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 1996; 55(1–2): 3954.
  • 95
    Lai JC, Chan AW, Leung TK, Minski MJ, Lim L. Neurochemical changes in rats chronically treated with a high concentration of manganese chloride. Neurochem. Res. 1992; 17(9): 841847.
  • 96
    Seligman PA, Chitambar C, Vostrejs M, Moran PL. The effects of various transferrins on iron utilization by proliferating cells. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1988; 526: 136140.
  • 97
    Loeffler DA, Connor JR, Juneau PL, Snyder BS, Kanaley L, DeMaggio AJ, Nguyen H, Brickman CM, LeWitt PA. Transferrin and iron in normal, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease brain regions. J. Neurochem. 1995; 65(2): 710724.
  • 98
    Dexter DT, Carayon A, Javoy-Agid F, Agid Y, Wells FR, Daniel SE, Lees AJ, Jenner P, Marsden CD. Alterations in the levels of iron, ferritin and other trace metals in Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases affecting the basal ganglia. Brain 1991; 114(Pt 4): 19531975.
  • 99
    Griffiths WJ, Kelly AL, Smith SJ, Cox TM. Localization of iron transport and regulatory proteins in human cells. Q. J. Med. 2000; 93(9): 575587.
  • 100
    Sofic E, Paulus W, Jellinger K, Riederer P, Youdim MB. Selective increase of iron in substantia nigra zona compacta of parkinsonian brains. J. Neurochem. 1991; 56(3): 978982.
  • 101
    Logroscino G, Marder K, Graziano J, Freyer G, Slavkovich V, LoIacono N, Cote L, Mayeux R. Altered systemic iron metabolism in Parkinson's disease. Neurology 1997; 49(3): 714717.
  • 102
    Ebadi M, Govitrapong P, Sharma S, Muralikrishnan D, Shavali S, Pellett L, Schafer R, Albano C, Eken J. Ubiquinone (coenzyme q10) and mitochondria in oxidative stress of parkinson's disease. Biol. Signals Recept. 2001; 10(3–4): 224253.
  • 103
    Wu DC, Teismann P, Tieu K, Vila M, Jackson-Lewis V, Ischiropoulos H, Przedborski S. NADPH oxidase mediates oxidative stress in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine model of Parkinson's disease. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 2003; 100(10): 61456150.
  • 104
    Li G, Zhang L, Lu L, Wu P, Zheng W. Occupational exposure to welding fume among welders: alterations of manganese, iron, zinc, copper, and lead in body fluids and the oxidative stress status. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 2004; 46(3): 241248.
  • 105
    Brurok H, Berg K, Sneen L, Grant D, Karlsson JO, Jynge P. Cardiac metal contents after infusions of manganese: an experimental evaluation in the isolated rat heart. Invest. Radiol. 1999; 34(7): 470476.
  • 106
    Hunter DR, Haworth RA, Berkoff HA. Cellular manganese uptake by the isolated perfused rat heart: a probe for the sarcolemma calcium channel. J. Mol. Cell Cardiol. 1981; 13(9): 823832.
  • 107
    Brurok H, Schjott J, Berg K, Karlsson JO, Jynge P. Manganese and the heart: acute cardiodepression and myocardial accumulation of manganese. Acta Physiol. Scand. 1997; 159(1): 3340.
  • 108
    Brurok H, Skoglund T, Berg K, Skarra S, Karlsson JO, Jynge P. Myocardial manganese elevation and proton relaxivity enhancement with manganese dipyridoxyl diphosphate. Ex vivo assessments in normally perfused and ischemic guinea pig hearts. NMR Biomed. 1999; 12(6): 364372.
  • 109
    Jynge P, Brurok H, Asplund A, Towart R, Refsum H, Karlsson JO. Cardiovascular safety of MnDPDP and MnCl2. Acta Radiol. 1997; 38(4 Pt 2): 740749.
  • 110
    Ramos KS, Chacon E, Daniel Acosta J. Toxic responses of the heart and vascular systems. In Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, KlaassenCD (ed.), 5th edn. McGraw-Hill: New York, 1996; 487527.
  • 111
    Ballatori N. Molecular mechanisms of hepatic metal transport. In Molecular Biology and Toxicology of Metals, ZalupsRK, KoropatnickJ (eds). Taylor & Francis: New York, 2000; 346381.
  • 112
    Dahlstrom-King L, Couture J, Plaa GL. Functional changes of the biliary tree associated with experimentally induced cholestasis: sulfobromophthalein on manganese-bilirubin combinations. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmac. 1991; 108(3): 559567.
  • 113
    Keen CL, Zidenberg-Cherr S. Manganese toxicity in humans and experimental animals. In Manganese in Health and Disease, Klimis-TavantzisDJ (ed.). CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 1994; 193205.
  • 114
    Symonds HW, Hall ED. Acute manganese toxicity and the absorption and biliary excretion of manganese in cattle. Res. Vet. Sci. 1983; 35(1): 513.
  • 115
    Goering PL. The road to elucidating the mechanism of manganese-bilirubin-induced cholestasis. Toxicol. Sci. 2003; 73(2): 216219.
  • 116
    Akoume MY, Perwaiz S, Yousef IM, Plaa GL. Synergistic role of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase in the pathogenesis of manganese-bilirubin-induced cholestasis in rats. Toxicol. Sci. 2003; 73(2): 378385.
  • 117
    Lauwerys R, Roels H, Genet P, Toussaint G, Bouckaert A, De Cooman S. Fertility of male workers exposed to mercury vapor or to manganese dust: a questionnaire study. Am. J. Ind. Med. 1985; 7(2): 171176.
  • 118
    Treinen KA, Gray TJ, Blazak WF. Developmental toxicity of mangafodipir trisodium and manganese chloride in Sprague–Dawley rats. Teratology 1995; 52(2): 109115.
  • 119
    Webster WS, Valois AA. Reproductive toxicology of manganese in rodents, including exposure during the postnatal period. NeuroToxicology 1987; 8: 437444.
  • 120
    Sanchez DL, Domingo JL, Llobet JM, Keen CL. Maternal and developmental toxicity of manganese in the mouse. Toxicol. Lett. 1993; 69: 4552.
  • 121
    Mena I, Court J, Fuenzalida S, Papavasiliou PS, Cotzias GC. Modification of chronic manganese poisoning. Treatment with l-dopa or 5-OH tryptophane. New Engl. J. Med. 1970; 282(1): 510.
  • 122
    Rosenstock HA, Simons DG, Meyer JS. Chronic manganism. Neurologic and laboratory studies during treatment with levodopa. JAMA 1971; 217(10): 13541358.
  • 123
    Huang CC, Lu CS, Chu NS, Hochberg F, Lilienfeld D, Olanow W, Calne DB. Progression after chronic manganese exposure. Neurology 1993; 43(8): 14791483.
  • 124
    Huang CC, Chu NS, Lu CS, Chen RS, Calne DB. Long-term progression in chronic manganism: ten years of follow-up. Neurology 1998; 50(3): 698700.