NMR in Biomedicine

Cover image for NMR in Biomedicine

January 2009

Volume 22, Issue 1

Pages 1–135

  1. Editorials

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Research Articles
    5. Current Awareness
    1. Breast MR (pages 1–2)

      N. R. Jagannathan

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1325

  2. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Research Articles
    5. Current Awareness
    1. Recent advances in breast MRI and MRS (pages 3–16)

      S. Sinha and U. Sinha

      Version of Record online: 23 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1270

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      Breast MRI is an area of intense research and is fast becoming an important tool for the diagnosis of breast cancer. This review covers recent advances in breast MRI, MRS, and image post-processing and analysis. Several studies have explored a multi-parametric approach to breast imaging that combines analysis of traditional contrast enhancement patterns and lesion architecture with novel methods such as diffusion, perfusion, and spectroscopy to increase the specificity of breast MRI studies.

    2. Breast cancer screening in women at high risk using MRI (pages 17–27)

      Martin O. Leach

      Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1326

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      Studies have recently demonstrated that magnetic resonance imaging is a sensitive method of screening for breast cancer in women at high risk due to an elevated family history of cancer. This has led to revised guidance for the management of women with a high risk of breast cancer. Recent studies are summarised and the relevant literature reviewed, together with recently revised guidelines. Factors affecting the use of MRI for screening women with known cancer predisposing gene mutations or with increased risk of cancer are discussed.

    3. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in the diagnosis and management of breast cancer (pages 28–39)

      Lindsay W. Turnbull

      Version of Record online: 23 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1273

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      Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is an evolving tool for determining breast disease, which benefits from the move to imaging at 3 T. It has major capabilities for the diagnosis, detection and monitoring of malignancy. It benefits from being non-invasive and three-dimensional, allowing visualisation of the extent of disease and its angiogenic properties, visualisation of lesion heterogeneity, detection of changes in angiogenic properties before morphological alterations, and the potential to predict the overall response either before the start of therapy or early during treatment.

    4. Model-based and model-free parametric analysis of breast dynamic-contrast-enhanced MRI (pages 40–53)

      Erez Eyal and Hadassa Degani

      Version of Record online: 19 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1221

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      A wide range of dynamic-contrast-enhanced (DCE) sequences and protocols, image processing methods, and interpretation criteria have been developed and evaluated over the last 20 years. In particular, attempts have been made to better understand the origin of the contrast observed in breast lesions using physiological models that take into account the vascular and tissue-specific features that influence tracer perfusion.

    5. Proton MRS of the breast in the clinical setting (pages 54–64)

      Carolyn Mountford, Saadallah Ramadan, Peter Stanwell and Peter Malycha

      Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1301

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      Information for determining whether a primary breast lesion is invasive and its receptor status and grade can be obtained before surgery by performing proton MRS on a fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimen from the primary tumour. The data is then analyzed by a pattern recognition method. In vivo, MRS can distinguish invasive from benign breast lesions preoperatively. This pathological distinction can be made from the presence of resonances at discrete frequencies.

    6. Metabolite quantification and high-field MRS in breast cancer (pages 65–76)

      Ihab S. Haddadin, Adeka McIntosh, Sina Meisamy, Curt Corum, Angela L. Styczynski Snyder, Nathaniel J. Powell, Michael T. Nelson, Douglas Yee, Michael Garwood and Patrick J. Bolan

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1217

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      In vivo 1H MRS is rapidly developing as a clinical tool for diagnosing and characterizing breast cancers. Many in vivo and in vitro experiments have demonstrated that alterations in concentrations of choline-containing metabolites are associated with malignant transformation. In recent years, considerable efforts have been made to evaluate the role of 1H MRS measurements of total choline-containing compounds in the management of patients with breast cancer.

    7. Investigation of breast cancer using two-dimensional MRS (pages 77–91)

      M. Albert Thomas, Scott Lipnick, S. Sendhil Velan, Xiaoyu Liu, Shida Banakar, Nader Binesh, Saadallah Ramadan, Art Ambrosio, Raymond R. Raylman, James Sayre, Nanette DeBruhl and Lawrence Bassett

      Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1310

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      Proton (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has the potential to non-invasively differentiate malignant, benign and healthy breast tissues. In vitro and ex vivo MRS of breast tissue biopsies have been used to identify detectable metabolic alterations in breast cancer. Improvements in signal quality and spectral information are achievable in breast pathologies in vivo using multi-dimensional MRS. This article reviews the recent progress with two-dimensional (2D) MRS of breast cancer in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. The discussion includes metabolic characterization schemes for breast tissues.

    8. Molecular and functional imaging of breast cancer (pages 92–103)

      K. Glunde, M. A. Jacobs, A. P. Pathak, D. Artemov and Z. M. Bhujwalla

      Version of Record online: 15 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1269

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      Prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment are the three broad challenges for MR molecular and functional imaging in reducing mortality from this disease. Multi-parametric molecular and functional MRI provides unprecedented opportunities for identifying novel targets for imaging and therapy at the bench, as well as for accurate diagnosis and monitoring response to therapy at the bedside. Here we provide an overview of the current status of molecular and functional MRI of breast cancer, outlining some key developments, as well as identifying some of the important challenges facing this field in the future.

  3. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Research Articles
    5. Current Awareness
    1. Longitudinal study of the assessment by MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging of tumor response in patients with locally advanced breast cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (pages 104–113)

      Uma Sharma, Karikanni Kalathil A. Danishad, Vurthaluru Seenu and Naranamangalam R. Jagannathan

      Version of Record online: 3 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1245

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      Measurements of tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), volume and diameter in assessing the response of patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) (n¼56) undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) at four time periods (before treatment and after three cycles of NACT) were carried out at 1.5 T using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and MRI. Ten benign tumors and 15 controls were also investigated.

    2. Characterization of breast cancers and therapy response by MRS and quantitative gene expression profiling in the choline pathway (pages 114–127)

      David L. Morse, Danielle Carroll, Sam Day, Heather Gray, Pooja Sadarangani, Shiva Murthi, Constantin Job, Brenda Baggett, Natarajan Raghunand and Robert J. Gillies

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1318

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      Herein, breast tumor phosphocholine (PCho) and glycerophosphocholine were quantified in vivo and quantifications of these metabolites agreed with ex vivo data. Choline (Cho) metabolites in extracts of non-malignant and malignant breast cells and transcript levels of genes in the Cho pathway were quantified. Metabolite levels and gene expression were consistent with the conclusion that increased Cho uptake, increased Cho kinase activity and increased phosphatidylcholine turnover contributed to PCho elevation in malignant cells. Observations suggest that phospholipase-A2 activity contributes to catabolism.

  4. Current Awareness

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Research Articles
    5. Current Awareness

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