NMR in Biomedicine

Cover image for Vol. 25 Issue 1

January 2012

Volume 25, Issue 1

Pages i–iii, 1–188

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    1. Issue Information (pages i–iii)

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2750

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    1. Using spatial prior knowledge in the spectral fitting of MRS images (pages 1–13)

      B. Michael Kelm, Frederik O. Kaster, Anke Henning, Marc-André Weber, Peter Bachert, Peter Boesiger, Fred A. Hamprecht and Bjoern H. Menze

      Version of Record online: 28 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1704

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The use of a spatial Gaussian Markov random field prior in addition to commonly employed parameter constraints is proposed for an improved spectral fitting of MRS images. An important advantage of using spatial prior knowledge is that overlapping peaks can be resolved more reliably in cases in which the single-voxel approach fails to do so. We found that the proposed method is particularly useful for high-resolution MRSI and allows detailed metabolic images to be derived.

    2. Complex flow patterns in a real-size intracranial aneurysm phantom: phase contrast MRI compared with particle image velocimetry and computational fluid dynamics (pages 14–26)

      P. van Ooij, A. Guédon, C. Poelma, J. Schneiders, M. C. M. Rutten, H. A. Marquering, C. B. Majoie, E. vanBavel and A. J. Nederveen

      Version of Record online: 8 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1706

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This article aims to validate high-resolution, time-resolved, three-dimensional phase contrast MRI (PC-MRI) measurements in a real-size intracranial aneurysm phantom by comparing velocity vectors from PC-MRI with velocity vectors derived from particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Good agreement was found in the comparison of flow patterns between the PC-MRI measurements and both PIV measurements and CFD simulations. We conclude that high-resolution, time-resolved, three-dimensional PC-MRI can accurately measure complex flow patterns in an intracranial aneurysm phantom.

    3. 7 Tesla (T) human cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging using FLASH and SSFP to assess cardiac function: validation against 1.5 T and 3 T. (pages 27–34)

      J. J. Suttie, L. DelaBarre, A. Pitcher, P. F. van de Moortele, S. Dass, C. J. Snyder, J. M. Francis, G. J. Metzger, P. Weale, K. Ugurbil, S. Neubauer, M. Robson and T. Vaughan

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1708

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We report the first comparison of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T, 3 T and 7 T field strengths using SSFP and FLASH cine sequences. Cardiac volumes and mass measurements were assessed for feasibility, reproducibility and validity at each given field strength using FLASH and SSFP sequences.

    4. Towards optimized MR thermometry of the human heart at 3T (pages 35–43)

      S. Hey, A. Cernicanu, B. D. de Senneville, S. Roujol, M. Ries, P. Jaïs, C. T. W. Moonen and B. Quesson

      Version of Record online: 6 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1709

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      As a step towards PRFS-based thermometry of the human heart at 3T, the performance of two different MR thermometry sequences, as well as three different blood suppression techniques were evaluated on 8 healthy volunteers without heating. It was found that a temporal temperature standard deviation of 2°C or better can be achieved in the ventricular septum with an update rate equal to the cardiac frequency, when using a TFE-EPI sequence in combination with inflow saturation blood suppression, navigator respiratory compensation, and cardiac triggering combined with a motion compensation and multi-baseline correction algorithm for motion related susceptibility variations.

    5. Acquisition of 3He ventilation images, ADC, T2* and B1 maps in a single scan with compressed sensing (pages 44–51)

      S. Ajraoui, J. Parra-Robles, H. Marshall, M.H. Deppe, M. Clemence and J.M. Wild

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1710

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this work, a new pulse sequence was developed that allows acquisition of ventilation images, ADC, T2* and flip angle maps in a single scan from the human lungs with inhaled 3He at 3T. Compressed sensing techniques were also used to accelerate the acquisition time and/or increase the image resolution. The quantitative results from fully sampled and under sampled data using the new interleaved sequence are in good agreement and also agree with previously reported data.

    6. Effects of Alzheimer's disease transgenes on neurochemical expression in the mouse brain determined by 1H MRS in vitro (pages 52–58)

      D. M. Forster, M. F. James and S. R. Williams

      Version of Record online: 26 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1712

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      TASTPM Alzheimer's mice investigated with 1H MRS show several differences in cerebral metabolite levels compared with wild type counterparts. Higher myo-inositol levels may be markers of gliosis and a biomarker of disease; lack of age dependence of the increase means they are unlikely to be a marker of disease progression. Lower succinate levels have not been previously demonstrated. This may be a marker of perturbations of neuronal energy metabolism.

    7. Vitreous deformation during eye movement (pages 59–66)

      Marco Piccirelli, Oliver Bergamin, Klara Landau, Peter Boesiger and Roger Luechinger

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1713

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Vitreous deformation during eye movement was depicted using tagging and tracked with a dedicated algorithm. Inhomogeneous deformation patterns and viscoelastic properties could be revealed inside the vitreous. The viscosity and elasticity of the vitreous were quantified in vivo from its deformation using an analytical model, and the results are depicted here as a function of the age of the subjects.

    8. Effect of contrast agent on the results of in vivo1H MRS of breast tumors – is it clinically significant? (pages 67–74)

      Pascal A. T. Baltzer, Alexander Gussew, Matthias Dietzel, Reinhard Rzanny, Mieczyslaw Gajda, Oumar Camara, Jürgen R. Reichenbach and Werner A. Kaiser

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1714

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In a clinical setting, lower choline (Cho) signal levels in patients receiving an ionic relative to a neutral gadolinium-based contrast agent were identified. These results suggest the administration of a nonionic contrast agent to avoid possible false negative findings in breast MRS. Contrast agent-related influences on MRS results should be considered when performing quantitative metabolite assessments or study comparisons.

    9. Quantitative assessment of central nervous system disorder induced by prenatal X-ray exposure using diffusion and manganese-enhanced MRI (pages 75–83)

      Shigeyoshi Saito, Ichio Aoki, Kazuhiko Sawada and Tetsuya Suhara

      Version of Record online: 28 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1715

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We quantitatively assessed the central nervous system of a developmental disorder induced by prenatal X-ray exposure using manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI). ΔR1 (increase in the longitudinal relaxation rate (R1) from before and after MnCl2 administration.) of MEMRI in radiation-exposed rats (0.59 ± 0.02 s–1) was significant smaller in comparison with that for normal rats (0.81 ± 0.08 s–1). MEMRI predominantly reflected the decrease in cell density (hematoxylin and eosin staining) and viability (activated caspase-3) in the prenatal X-ray exposure model.

    10. A simple noniterative principal component technique for rapid noise reduction in parallel MR images (pages 84–92)

      Anand S. Patel, Qi Duan, Philip M. Robson, Charles A. McKenzie and Daniel K. Sodickson

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1716

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Parallel MRI usually leads to a deterioration in the signal-to-noise ratio when compared to otherwise equivalent unaccelerated acquisitions. We describe a simple algorithm that achieves significant noise reductions in highly accelerated in vivo images by taking advantage of the fact that the parallel image reconstruction matrix tends to become dominated by one principal component at large acceleration factors.

    11. Diffusion tensor imaging of diffuse axonal injury in a rat brain trauma model (pages 93–103)

      Yohan van de Looij, Franck Mauconduit, Marine Beaumont, Samuel Valable, Régine Farion, Gilles Francony, Jean-François Payen and Hana Lahrech

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1721

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Diffusion tensor imaging was used to study traumatic brain injury. The impact–acceleration trauma model was used in rats. Here, in addition to diffusivities, fractional anisotropy was used as a parameter to characterize the cerebral tissue early after trauma at 7 T. A low fractional anisotropy and a net discontinuity in fiber tracking imaging were detected in the corpus callosum of trauma rats, as confirmed by histological analysis.

    12. Association between sociability and diffusion tensor imaging in BALB/cJ mice (pages 104–112)

      Sungheon Kim, Stephen Pickup, Andrew H. Fairless, Ranjit Ittyerah, Holly C. Dow, Ted Abel, Edward S. Brodkin and Harish Poptani

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1722

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The purpose of this study was to use high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the association between DTI metrics and sociability in BALB/cJ inbred mice. Strong positive regression between the social sniffing time and fractional anisotropy was found in 10 clusters located in the thalamic nuclei, zona incerta/substantia nigra, visual/orbital/somatosensory cortices, and entorhinal cortex. In addition, strong negative regression between the social sniffing time and apparent diffusion coefficient was found in five areas located in the sensory cortex, motor cortex, external capsule and amygdaloid region.

    13. Lactate MRSI and DCE MRI as surrogate markers of prostate tumor aggressiveness (pages 113–122)

      J. Yaligar, S. B. Thakur, L. Bokacheva, S. Carlin, H. T. Thaler, A. Rizwan, M. E. Lupu, Y. Wang, C. C. Matei, K. L. Zakian and J. A. Koutcher

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1723

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Lactate is not detected in small Dunning R3327-AT tumors, but increases with growth and subsequently decreases. The spatial distribution of lactate is very heterogeneous in R3327-AT tumors. This increase in lactate in R3327-AT tumors occurs with a concomitant decrease in Akep and evolving differences in perfusion between the rim and core, indicating poorer perfusion. Lactate is not detected in slow-growing Dunning R3327-H tumors, suggesting that it is a potential marker of aggressive tumors.

    14. Direct detection of a single evoked action potential with MRS in Lumbricus terrestris (pages 123–130)

      Alexander J. Poplawsky, Raymond Dingledine and Xiaoping P. Hu

      Version of Record online: 5 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1724

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This study provides the first evidence for the direct detection of the transient magnetic field induced by a single evoked action potential in the nerve cord of earthworms. Using simultaneous MRS and electrophysiology, we observed a phase change at a submillisecond temporal resolution in the free induction decay that corresponded to the time-locked action potential. Amplitude and temporal characteristics of our experimental results correlate well with the theoretical predictions of the volume conductor model.

    15. A texture analysis approach to quantify ventilation changes in hyperpolarised 3He MRI of the rat lung in an asthma model (pages 131–141)

      Frank Risse, Jelena Pesic, Simon Young and Lars E. Olsson

      Version of Record online: 7 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1725

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The effect of steroid (budesonide) treatment on lung inflammation in rats caused by ovalbumin can be visualised using hyperpolarised 3He MRI. Changes in lung ventilation in this asthma model were quantified using texture analysis. The texture analysis showed significant differences between the control, vehicle-treated and budesonide-treated groups, which was in agreement with a biological marker.

    16. Effects of pyruvate dose on in vivo metabolism and quantification of hyperpolarized 13C spectra (pages 142–151)

      M. A. Janich, M. I. Menzel, F. Wiesinger, E. Weidl, O. Khegai, J. H. Ardenkjaer-Larsen, S. J. Glaser, A. Haase, R. F. Schulte and M. Schwaiger

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1726

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Metabolic imaging with hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate requires the injection of relatively large doses. Dose effects were examined in different organs in Wistar rats, and partial saturation of cellular uptake and metabolic conversion was observed. Three different methods for quantification of spectra from slice-selective, free induction decay acquisition were compared: frequency-domain fitting with LCModel, time-domain fitting with AMARES and simple weighted linear least-squares fitting in the time domain.

    17. Regional neurochemical profiles in the human brain measured by 1H MRS at 7 T using local B1 shimming (pages 152–160)

      Uzay E. Emir, Edward J. Auerbach, Pierre-Francois Van De Moortele, Małgorzata Marjańska, Kamil Uğurbil, Melissa Terpstra, Ivan Tkáč and Gülin Öz

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1727

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Increased SNR and chemical shift dispersion at ultra-high magnetic fields (UHF) enable precise quantification of an extended range of brain metabolites from 1HMR spectra. The combination of a multichannel transceiver array coil and local B1+ shimming enabled us to acquire excellent single voxel, short-echo STEAM spectra from multiple brain regions at 7T. The high spectra quality facilitated the quantification of neurochemical profiles consisting of at least nine metabolites including GABA, Glu and GSH in all brain regions.

    18. Ultrashort echo time spectroscopic imaging (UTESI): an efficient method for quantifying bound and free water (pages 161–168)

      Eric Diaz, Christine B. Chung, Won C. Bae, Sheronda Statum, Richard Znamirowski, Graeme M. Bydder and Jiang Du

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1728

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The 2D multi-slice UTESI bi-component T2* technique is able to quantify both T2* and the fractions of the bound and free water components in MSK tissues such as cortical bone, menisci, and Achilles tendon with good spatial resolution in acceptable times using a clinical 3T MR system. It has potential for evaluation of MSK diseases such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis.

    19. Characterization of skin abnormalities in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging and Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy (pages 169–176)

      H. C. Canuto, K. W. Fishbein, A. Huang, S. B. Doty, R. A. Herbert, J. Peckham, N. Pleshko and R. G. Spencer

      Version of Record online: 15 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1732

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We hypothesized that skin abnormalities would be seen in the oim mouse, consistent with the known collagen mutation, and that these abnormalities would be detectible by non-invasive MRI analysis of tissue morphology and biophysical characteristics. Results were correlated with histologic studies and with Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS) to establish molecular-level characteristics of the tissue.

    20. MRI study of cryoinjury infarction in pig hearts: i. Effects of intrapericardial delivery of bFGF/VEGF embedded in alginate beads (pages 177–188)

      Y. Yang, ML. Gruwel, P. Dreessen de Gervai, J. Sun, O. Jilkina, E. Gussakovsky and V. Kupriyanov

      Version of Record online: 30 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1736

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Treatment of chronic infarction with basic fibroblast and vascular endothelial growth factors embedded in alginate beads attached to epicardial surface of cryoinjured pig hearts resulted in growth of connective tissue and vascularization of infarct area. These effects were observed using first-pass and late enhancement GdDTPA MRI in vivo and post-mortem analysis by microsphere fluorescent imaging and triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Sustained intrapericardial delivery of the growth factors can be useful for treatment of microvascular injury associated with coronary artery bypass grafting.