NMR in Biomedicine

Cover image for Vol. 25 Issue 10

October 2012

Volume 25, Issue 10

Pages i–ii, 1113–1208

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research articles
    4. Rapid communications
    1. Issue Information (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2759

  2. Research articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research articles
    4. Rapid communications
    1. Metabolism of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate in the isolated perfused rat lung – an ischemia study (pages 1113–1118)

      B. Pullinger, H. Profka, J. H. Ardenkjaer-Larsen, N. N. Kuzma, S. Kadlecek and R. R. Rizi

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2777

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      A study of isolated, perfused rat lungs shows the increased lactate labeling rates after stopped-flow ischemia and its reversal to near-baseline levels after reperfusion. These results support the use of hyperpolarized 1-13C pyruvate to characterize metabolic changes in the lung.

    2. Application of hyperpolarized [1-13C]lactate for the in vivo investigation of cardiac metabolism (pages 1119–1124)

      Dirk Mayer, Yi-Fen Yen, Sonal Josan, Jae Mo Park, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Ralph E. Hurd and Daniel M. Spielman

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2778

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      Since lactate serves as an important energy source for the heart, hyperpolarized [1-13C]lactate could potentially be used as an alternative to pyruvate for probing heart metabolism. Both the primary oxidation of lactate to pyruvate and the subsequent conversion of pyruvate to alanine and bicarbonate could reliably be detected in healthy rats. A more than 2.5-fold increase in bicarbonate-to-substrate ratio was found after administration of dichloroacetate due to the increased flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase.

    3. Blood oxygen level dependent angiography (BOLDangio) and its potential applications in cancer research (pages 1125–1132)

      Kejia Cai, Adam Shore, Anup Singh, Mohammad Haris, Teruyuki Hiraki, Prianka Waghray, Damodar Reddy, Joel H. Greenberg and Ravinder Reddy

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2780

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      Longitudinal monitoring of tumor angiogenesis can help clinicians determine the effectiveness of anti-angiogenic therapy. Blood Oxygen Level Dependent angiography (BOLDangio) represents a novel application of BOLD MRI. In this study, oxygen inhalation levels are optimized to enable us to image/quantify the normal or tumor vasculature at a high resolution, detect tumor metastasis and tumor associated hemorrhage. BOLDangio may be used to as a powerful preclinical research tool for monitoring the treatment responses of anti-angiogenic therapies.

    4. Quantitative BOLD response of the renal medulla to hyperoxic challenge at 1.5 T and 3.0 T (pages 1133–1138)

      Olivio F. Donati, Daniel Nanz, Andreas L. Serra and Andreas Boss

      Article first published online: 31 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2781

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      Changes in apparent spin-spin relaxation time (ΔT2*) of renal hypoxia were monitored in healthy volunteers during inhalation of oxygen or carbogen (95% O2, 5% CO2). Parametrical maps of T2* relaxation times showed the largest changes in the renal medulla with an increase of 33-35% for oxygen breathing and ~54 for carbogen breathing at 3 T. Our study results implicate that gas challenge BOLD MRI can detect a significant increase in medullary oxygenation after the inhalation of O2 as well as carbogen.

    5. The importance of RF bandwidth for effective tagging in pulsed arterial spin labeling MRI at 9.4T (pages 1139–1143)

      J. A. Wells, B. Siow, M. F. Lythgoe and D. L. Thomas

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2782

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      This study highlights a potential source of error in cerebral blood flow quantification using PASL at high field. We demonstrate that the labelling efficiency in flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) displays marked sensitivity to the RF bandwidth of the inversion pulse in the rat at 9.4T. It is likely that this potential problem may have otherwise escaped consideration in future studies given that: i) it has not been previously investigated; ii) the lack of obvious symptoms presented other than a lower than expected CBF; iii) the dependence of the necessary bandwidth for efficient inversion on the slice position (i.e. what appears to be adequate for one slice may be problematic in another).

    6. High-resolution ZTE imaging of human teeth (pages 1144–1151)

      Markus Weiger, Klaas P. Pruessmann, Anna-Katinka Bracher, Sascha Köhler, Volker Lehmann, Uwe Wolfram, Franciszek Hennel and Volker Rasche

      Article first published online: 31 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2783

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      MRI with zero echo time (ZTE) was implemented for efficient, robust, and silent high-resolution 3D imaging of short-T2 samples. The technique was applied for MRI of extracted human teeth, yielding detailed depictions with very good delineation of the mineralised layers. ZTE results were compared with UTE (ultra-short echo time) MRI, revealing significant differences in SNR and CNR yield. Compared to micro-computed tomography, ZTE MRI indicates to offer superior sensitivity for the detection of early demineralisation and caries lesions.

    7. Characterization and mapping of dipolar interactions within macromolecules in tissues using a combination of DQF, MT and UTE MRI (pages 1152–1159)

      Uzi Eliav, Michal Komlosh, Peter J. Basser and Gil Navon

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2784

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      In the present work it is shown that by combining double quantum filtering with magnetization transfer and ultra-short TE it is possible to obtain contrast between tissue compartments based on the following factors: (a) residual dipolar interactions within the macromolecules (b) residual dipolar interactions within the water molecules (c) magnetization exchange rate between macromolecules and water. Demonstration is given for rat tail.

    8. Splitting of Pi and other 31P NMR anomalies of skeletal muscle metabolites in canine muscular dystrophy (pages 1160–1169)

      Claire Wary, Thibaud Naulet, Jean-Laurent Thibaud, Aurélien Monnet, Stéphane Blot and Pierre G. Carlier

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2785

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      Onset of therapeutic trials in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) led us to revisit 31P NMR spectroscopy in skeletal muscle of the canine GRMD model. In addition to altered ratios of inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphocreatine (PCr) and phosphodiesters (PDE), we identified and further characterized what appeared as a second, more alkaline, less metabolically active, Pi pool. This ensemble of anomalies provides a range of potential biomarkers for treatment efficacy.

    9. Rat brain MRI at 16.4T using a capacitively tunable patch antenna in combination with a receive array (pages 1170–1176)

      G. Shajan, Jens Hoffmann, Dávid Z. Balla, Dinesh K. Deelchand, Klaus Scheffler and Rolf Pohmann

      Article first published online: 17 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2786

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      Electromagnetic wave propagation, essential for far-field excitation in the conventional taveling wave technique, is not supported in MR scanners with narrow bores due to their high cutoff frequency. By moving the transmit antenna closer to the sample and using the near-field for excitation, it is still possible to produce a relatively homogenous as well as efficient B1+ field over a large volume. In this article, we present the first application of near-field excitation using a capacitively tunable patch antenna in combination with a receive coil array for small animal imaging at 16.4T.

    10. Glucose metabolism via the pentose phosphate pathway, glycolysis and Krebs cycle in an orthotopic mouse model of human brain tumors (pages 1177–1186)

      Isaac Marin-Valencia, Steve K. Cho, Dinesh Rakheja, Kimmo J. Hatanpaa, Payal Kapur, Tomoyuki Mashimo, Ashish Jindal, Vamsidhara Vemireddy, Levi B. Good, Jack Raisanen, Xiankai Sun, Bruce Mickey, Changho Choi, Masaya Takahashi, Osamu Togao, Juan M. Pascual, Ralph J. DeBerardinis, Elizabeth A. Maher, Craig R. Malloy and Robert M. Bachoo

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2787

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      [1,2-13C2]glucose infusion and ex vivo 13C NMR analysis of mouse orthotopic glioblastoma and renal cell carcinoma metastatic to brain demonstrate that the rate of glycolysis is significantly greater than the pentose phosphate pathway flux in these tumors. The analysis of 13C multiplets of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the renal metastasis suggests that GABA does not derive from a common glutamate precursor pool. We have shown that the renal metastasis and primary renal tumor produce GABA, which is a potential novel biomarker in this disease.

    11. Quantification of MRI signal of transgenic grafts overexpressing ferritin in murine myocardial infarcts (pages 1187–1195)

      Anna V. Naumova, Vasily L. Yarnykh, Niranjan Balu, Hans Reinecke, Charles E. Murry and Chun Yuan

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2788

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      Transgenic C2C12 grafts overexpressing ferritin were detected in infarcted mouse heart as areas of hypointensity in T2*-weighted black-blood improved motion-sensitized-driven equilibrium (iMSDE) and bright-blood gradient echo (GRE) sequences using a 3-T scanner; the signal intensity ratio was reduced significantly by 20% and 30%, respectively. Unlabeled cells transplanted to mouse heart did not change the MRI signal intensity. MRI graft size measurements were highly correlated with histology (r = 0.79 for T2* iMSDE and r = 0.89 for T2* GRE)

    12. Longitudinal 1H MRS assessment of the thalamus in a Coriaria lactone-induced rhesus monkey status epilepticus model (pages 1196–1201)

      Xiao-Yun Zhang, Zhi-Yong Yang, Jin-Mei Li, Hong-Xia Li, Li Wang, Qi-Yong Gong and Dong Zhou

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2789

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      We investigated the metabolism of the thalamus to identify changes that evolve following Coriaria lactone-induced status epilepticus. Symmetrical distributions of MRS data emphasize the evolution of the thalamus in status epilepticus, and indicate that the left thalamus is more vulnerable to epileptic strike.

  3. Rapid communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research articles
    4. Rapid communications
    1. Simultaneous bilateral hip joint imaging at 7 Tesla using fast transmit B1 shimming methods and multichannel transmission – a feasibility study (pages 1202–1208)

      J. Ellermann, U. Goerke, P. Morgan, K. Ugurbil, J. Tian, S. Schmitter, T. Vaughan and P.-F. Van De Moortele

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2779

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      Based on substantial gains in tissue contrast and spatial resolution reported at ultra high magnetic fields, expectations are that imaging hip joints at 7 Tesla will improve diagnostic accuracy. Acquiring high quality images in the torso at 7 Tesla, however, is hampered by heterogeneous transmit B1 and high SAR. We demonstrate that using B1 shimming and a transceiver array, to maximizing transmit B1 can effectively address these issues, providing high joint tissue contrast in both hips without exceeding SAR limits.

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