NMR in Biomedicine

Cover image for Vol. 25 Issue 3

Special Issue: MRI in Tissue Engineering

March 2012

Volume 25, Issue 3

Pages i–iii, 401–488

Issue edited by: Richard Spencer

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Editorials
    4. Special Issue Review Articles
    5. Special Issue Research Articles
    6. Special Issue Review Articles
    7. Special Issue Research Articles
    1. Issue Information (pages i–iii)

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2752

  2. Editorials

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Editorials
    4. Special Issue Review Articles
    5. Special Issue Research Articles
    6. Special Issue Review Articles
    7. Special Issue Research Articles
  3. Special Issue Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Editorials
    4. Special Issue Review Articles
    5. Special Issue Research Articles
    6. Special Issue Review Articles
    7. Special Issue Research Articles
    1. Specific identification of iron oxide-labeled stem cells using magnetic field hyperthermia and MR thermometry (pages 402–409)

      Daniel Haddad, Markus F. Hildenbrand, Karl-Heinz Hiller, Meike Haddad-Weber and Peter M. Jakob

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1684

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      Iron oxide-labeled cells can be identified nonambiguously in vitro and in vivo using the combination of magnetic field hyperthermia and MR temperature maps. Using magnetic particle heating, the iron oxide-labeled cells (arrow) are selectively heated in the living mouse, as shown in the image. Other hypointense structures in the MR image (circle) are not heated and therefore not detected in the temperature map.

    2. Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) labeling efficiency and subsequent MRI tracking of native cell populations pertinent to pulmonary heart valve tissue engineering studies (pages 410–417)

      Sharan Ramaswamy, Paul A. Schornack, Adam G. Smelko, Steven M. Boronyak, Julia Ivanova, John E. Mayer Jr and Michael S. Sacks

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1642

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Migration of vascular cells is an attribute contributing to pulmonary heart valve remodeling. This process is of interest in the context of tissue engineered heart valve implantation. As a first step in studying the remodeling events, the scope of this work was to determine if vascular cells distributed in in vitro engineered tissue constructs could be effectively labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide microparticles, followed by visualization and tracking by magnetic resonance imaging.

    3. Monitoring tissue development in acellular matrix-based regeneration for bladder tissue engineering: Multiexponential diffusion and T2* for improved specificity (pages 418–426)

      Hai-Ling Margaret Cheng, Yasir Loai and Walid A. Farhat

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1617

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      Multiexponential diffusion MRI and T2* were investigated for monitoring acellular matrix-based bladder regeneration. The slow diffusion fraction was shown to correlate with cellularity in the presence of extracellular matrix changes, and T2* was sensitive to macromolecules without influence from tissue hydration. These metrics provide improved specificity over single T1, T2 and diffusion for the assessment of concurrent tissue engineering processes.

    4. New advances in MR-compatible bioartificial liver (pages 427–442)

      Rex E. Jeffries and Jeffrey M. Macdonald

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1633

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      MR-compatible bioartificial liver (BAL) studies have been performed for thirty years and are reviewed. There are two types of studies: (1) metabolism and drug studies using multinuclear MRS and these have primarily been short-term (<8hr) studies, and (2) the use of multinuclear MRS and MRI to non-invasively define features and functions of BAL systems for long-term liver tissue engineering. In the later, these systems often undergo not only modification of the perfusion system, but also construction of MR radiofrequency probes around the bioreactor. We present novel MR-compatible BALs and the use of multinuclear NMR spectroscopy (13C, 19F, 31P) for their non-invasive monitoring of growth, metabolism, and viability, as well as 1H MRI methods for determining type of flow profiles, diffusion, cell distribution, quality assurance, and bioreactor integrity. Finally, a simple flexible coil design and circuit, and life support system is described that can make nearly any BAL MR-compatible.

  4. Special Issue Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Editorials
    4. Special Issue Review Articles
    5. Special Issue Research Articles
    6. Special Issue Review Articles
    7. Special Issue Research Articles
    1. Image-based tissue engineering of a total intervertebral disc implant for restoration of function to the rat lumbar spine (pages 443–451)

      Robby D. Bowles, Harry H. Gebhard, Jonathan P. Dyke, Douglas J. Ballon, Andre Tomasino, Matthew E. Cunningham, Roger Härtl and Lawrence J. Bonassar

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1651

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      MRI and microcomputed tomography imaging of the rat spine were used to design a collagen (annulus fibrosus)/alginate (nucleus pulposus) tissue-engineered total disc replacement (TE-TDR) to high geometric accuracy (i.e. within 10% of the native disc size). TE-TDR implants were placed in the L4/L5 disc space of athymic rats for 16 weeks, during which time they survived, produced new matrix and integrated with the surrounding vertebrae. This study provides evidence that TE-TDR strategies may provide a clinically viable treatment for diseased intervertebral discs (IVDs).

  5. Special Issue Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Editorials
    4. Special Issue Review Articles
    5. Special Issue Research Articles
    6. Special Issue Review Articles
    7. Special Issue Research Articles
    1. MR elastography monitoring of tissue-engineered constructs (pages 452–463)

      Shadi F. Othman, Evan T. Curtis, Sarah A. Plautz, Angela K. Pannier, Stephanie D. Butler and Huihui Xu

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1663

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Tissue engineered (TE) construct development in vitro and regeneration in vivo can be monitored by probing their mechanical properties using high resolution magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). In this paper a description of the MRE system, theory, and in vitro MRE work for monitoring osteogenic and adipogenic tissues is described. TE constructs are then implanted in a mouse model and preliminary in vivo studies are presented demonstrating the future role of MRE in tissue engineering. Finally, MRE technical hurdles are discussed.

  6. Special Issue Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Editorials
    4. Special Issue Review Articles
    5. Special Issue Research Articles
    6. Special Issue Review Articles
    7. Special Issue Research Articles
    1. 31P and 13C solid-state NMR spectroscopy to study collagen synthesis and biomineralization in polymer-based bone implants (pages 464–475)

      Franziska Weber, Julia Böhme, Holger A. Scheidt, Wilfried Gründer, Stefan Rammelt, Michael Hacker, Michaela Schulz-Siegmund and Daniel Huster

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1649

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We used a combination of solid-state NMR spectroscopy and MRI to evaluate the formation of extracellular matrix in poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) bone implants. In addition to the images, we used magic angle spinning NMR to analyse the collagen (by 13C NMR) and apatite (by 31P NMR) formed in the implants. This analysis provides useful information on the composition and structure of the extracellular matrix, and serves as a tool for the evaluation of the quality of tissue engineering.

    2. Improved MR-based characterization of engineered cartilage using multiexponential T2 relaxation and multivariate analysis (pages 476–488)

      David A. Reiter, Onyi Irrechukwu, Ping-Chang Lin, Somaieh Moghadam, Sarah Von Thaer, Nancy Pleshko and Richard G. Spencer

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1804

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We present two new approaches for noninvasive monitoring of tissue engineered constructs and apply them to maturing engineered cartilage. First, multiexponential T2 analysis showed a significant increase in proteoglycan-associated water content with maturation. Second, multivariate support vector machine analysis using multiple MR parameters improved characterization of maturation stage as compared with univariate analysis, using individual parameters. Thus, multiexponential and multivariate approaches show substantial potential for improving sensitivity and molecular specificity in the evaluation of engineered cartilage tissue.

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