NMR in Biomedicine

Cover image for Vol. 26 Issue 2

February 2013

Volume 26, Issue 2

Pages 1–236

  1. Issue information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue information
    3. Research articles
    4. Rapid communication
    1. Issue Information (pages 1–2)

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2855

  2. Research articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue information
    3. Research articles
    4. Rapid communication
    1. MRI assessment of the intra-carotid route for macrophage delivery after transient cerebral ischemia (pages 115–123)

      Adrien Riou, Fabien Chauveau, Tae-Hee Cho, Marilena Marinescu, Serge Nataf, Norbert Nighoghossian, Yves Berthezène and Marlène Wiart

      Version of Record online: 25 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2826

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      Intra-carotid cell delivery brings a large number of cells to the ipsilateral hemisphere of the brain following experimental stroke, but is associated with high mortality. In sham animals, intra-carotid cell delivery induces ischemic lesions and may thus favor additional brain damage. Multiparametric MRI is a method of choice to monitor longitudinally the effects of cell infusion, allowing the assessment of both cell fate with the help of magnetic labeling and potential tissue damage.

    2. A continuous-flow, high-throughput, high-pressure parahydrogen converter for hyperpolarization in a clinical setting (pages 124–131)

      Jan-Bernd Hövener, Sébastien Bär, Jochen Leupold, Klaus Jenne, Dieter Leibfritz, Jürgen Hennig, Simon B. Duckett and Dominik von Elverfeldt

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2827

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      Enriched parahydrogen (pH2) is the prerequisite for parahydrogen based hyperpolarization experiments. Here, we present a pH2 converter operated in a clinical setting suitable for the production of a continuous flow of 4 standard liters per minute of ≈98% enriched pH2 at a pressure maximum of 50 bar, along with the safety concept, design and installation. Operational protocols, together with a fast and simple quantification procedure, are provided. With a lifetime of the order of 100 days, pH2 is stored in an aluminum cylinder and is available on demand.

    3. In vivo MRS and histochemistry of status epilepticus-induced hippocampal pathology in a juvenile model of temporal lobe epilepsy (pages 132–140)

      W. Saskia van der Hel, Pieter van Eijsden, Ineke W. M. Bos, Robin A. de Graaf, Kevin L. Behar, Onno van Nieuwenhuizen, Pierre N. E. de Graan and Kees P. J. Braun

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2828

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      In this study, in vivo MRS was used in a juvenile rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy to establish the evolution of status epilepticus-induced hippocampal injury and neurotransmitter imbalance. In vivo MRS showed gliosis and (predominantly γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic) neuronal loss, confirmed by histology. Furthermore, an increase in glutamine was detected, accompanied by a decrease in glutamine synthase immunoreactivity and the normalization of glutamine levels. These changes occurred before spontaneous seizures were present, but created a hyperexcitable state, which may play a role in the facilitation of these seizures.

    4. Detection of endogenous iron deposits in the injured mouse spinal cord through high-resolution ex vivo and in vivo MRI (pages 141–150)

      Linda V. Blomster, Gary J. Cowin, Nyoman D. Kurniawan and Marc J. Ruitenberg

      Version of Record online: 23 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2829

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      We used an ultrahigh-field (16.4-T) MR system to image the lesioned mouse spinal cord. We then correlated abnormal features in MR images with microscopic histopathology. We show that hypo-intense MR features (A) result from abnormal iron accumulation (B). Ultrahigh-field MRI was able to resolve this pathology at near single-cell-level resolution. Intracellular iron stores could be visualised ex vivo as well as in vivo (C).

    5. Response of HT29 colorectal xenograft model to cediranib assessed with 18F-fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography, dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI (pages 151–163)

      Louisa Bokacheva, Khushali Kotedia, Megan Reese, Sally-Ann Ricketts, Jane Halliday, Carl H. Le, Jason A. Koutcher and Sean Carlin

      Version of Record online: 8 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2830

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      Colorectal HT29 tumors treated with cediranib (AstraZeneca), a small-molecule vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor, for 48 h, and vehicle controls were studied with dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI. The treated tumors showed a significant decrease in Ktrans, a trend towards lower ve and unchanged apparent diffusion coefficient values. 18F-fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography showed a significant post-treatment decrease in the mean tumor standardized uptake value. Treated tumors showed unchanged microvascular density, but a significantly lower fraction of perfused vessels. Short-term administration of cediranib appears to decrease tumor perfusion/permeability without changing vessel morphology.

    6. Quantification of glutamate and glutamine using constant-time point-resolved spectroscopy at 3 T (pages 164–172)

      Meng Gu, Natalie M. Zahr, Daniel M. Spielman, Edith V. Sullivan, Adolf Pfefferbaum and Dirk Mayer

      Version of Record online: 4 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2831

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      A method that separately quantifies glutamate and glutamine from a constant-time point-resolved spectroscopy dataset by fitting the basis one-dimensional diagonal magnitude spectrum to the measured spectrum was developed. This method was validated using seven custom-built phantoms containing variable metabolite concentrations and applied to in vivo data acquired in rodents. Quantification revealed increased glutamine after 16 weeks and increased glutamate after 24 weeks of vaporized ethanol exposure in the ethanol-treated compared with the control group.

    7. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a potential contrast agent for brain tumors (pages 173–184)

      T. Delgado-Goñi, J. Martín-Sitjar, R. V. Simões, M. Acosta, S. Lope-Piedrafita and C. Arús

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2832

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      Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) accumulation and wash-out kinetics after oral or intraperitoneal administration are significantly different between normal brain parenchyma and glial tumours in mice (both low and high grade). MRSI spatial maps of time-course DMSO changes revealed clear hotspots of maximum accumulation in tumor regions. Our results indicate a potential role for DMSO as a contrast agent for brain tumor detection and, possibly, for the monitoring of heterogeneities.

    8. Treatment response monitoring in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor using diffusion-weighted imaging: preliminary results in comparison with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (pages 185–192)

      Nan-Jie Gong, Chun-Sing Wong, Yiu-Ching Chu and Jing Gu

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2834

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      To achieve higher accuracy in the measurement of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of lesions, a more objective threshold ADC measurement approach, which uses liver and background noise ADCs as thresholds, was introduced. The absolute value of this parameter (ADCmean_thr) at both initial and follow-up imaging and its percentage change demonstrated significant correlations with those of SUVmean and SUVmax. These findings indicated that diffusion-weighted imaging could provide quantitative assessment comparable with positron emission tomography/computed tomography in gastrointestinal stromal tumor characterization, treatment response evaluation and response prediction.

    9. Quality control of prostate 1 H MRSI data (pages 193–203)

      Alan J. Wright, Thiele Kobus, Kirsten M. Selnæs, Ingrid S. Gribbestad, Elizabeth Weiland, Tom W. J. Scheenen and Arend Heerschap

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2835

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      Quality control is an important processing step in the clinical analysis of 1 H MRSI data of the prostate. We have developed a fully automated algorithm that accepts or rejects prostate spectra on the basis of quality. The method was developed on the consensus decisions of four expert spectroscopists.

    10. Serial measurement of hepatic lipids during chemotherapy in patients with colorectal cancer: a 1H MRS study (pages 204–212)

      Jing Qi, Yuman Fong, Leonard Saltz, Michael I. D'Angelica, Nancy E. Kemeny, Mithat Gonen, Jinru Shia, Amita Shukla-Dave, William M. Jarnagin, Richard K. G. Do, Lawrence H. Schwartz, Jason A. Koutcher and Kristen L. Zakian

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2837

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      Hepatic lipids were measured by localized 1H MRS over a period of 24 weeks in patients with colorectal cancer being treated with chemotherapy. Lipid levels increased in 13 of 26 patients and six converted from nonsteatotic to steatotic. An elevation in lipids at 6 weeks predicted that a patient would complete chemotherapy at 24 weeks with hepatic lipids significantly increased relative to the baseline level.

      Corrected by:

      Erratum: Serial measurement of hepatic lipids during chemotherapy in patients with colorectal cancer: a 1H MRS study

      Vol. 27, Issue 2, 235, Version of Record online: 18 DEC 2013

    11. High-precision calibration of MRS thermometry using validated temperature standards: effects of ionic strength and protein content on the calibration (pages 213–223)

      E. Vescovo, A. Levick, C. Childs, G. Machin, S. Zhao and S. R. Williams

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2840

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      New calibrations in vitro of MRS thermometry using temperature-stabilised reference phantoms are reported. The calibration is sensitive to both ionic strength and protein content of the phantom. The calibration curve used for MRS measurements in vivo should be for a material that closely matches the composition of the tissue; the calibration is sensitive to the different water contents of grey and white matter and to the different ionic milieu of neuronal and glial cells.

    12. High-resolution MRI of early-stage mouse embryos (pages 224–231)

      Prodromos Parasoglou, Cesar A. Berrios-Otero, Brian J. Nieman and Daniel H. Turnbull

      Version of Record online: 22 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2843

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      In this article, we report a method for the imaging of the mouse embryo from stages as early as embryonic day (E)10.5, close to the onset of organogenesis. High-resolution three-dimensional images (100 µm isotropic) with contrast in the cerebral vasculature, limbs, spine and brain are obtained without the use of contrast agents. These results indicate the potential of MRI for longitudinal imaging of developing mouse embryos in utero and for future applications in analyzing mutant mouse phenotypes.

  3. Rapid communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue information
    3. Research articles
    4. Rapid communication
    1. Fraction of unsaturated fatty acids in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is lower in subjects with high total VAT volume – a combined 1H MRS and volumetric MRI study in male subjects (pages 232–236)

      Jürgen Machann, Norbert Stefan, Christoph Schabel, Erwin Schleicher, Andreas Fritsche, Christian Würslin, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Claus D. Claussen and Fritz Schick

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2849

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      The composition of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was analyzed in 20 male subjects by 1H-MRS in order to assess interindividual differences in lipid composition regarding mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in triglycerides. The total amount of VAT as determined by T1-weighted MRI shows a strong negative correlation to the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids, i.e., the higher the total amount of VAT, the less unsaturated fatty acids are present. Further studies will clarify the metabolic relevance of this finding.