NMR in Biomedicine

Cover image for Vol. 27 Issue 1

Special Issue: Prostate MR: current status, challenges and future directions

January 2014

Volume 27, Issue 1

Pages i–ii, 1–111

Issue edited by: Naranamangalam R. Jagannathan

  1. Issue information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue information
    3. Editorial
    4. Special issue review articles
    5. Special issue research article
    1. Issue Information (pages i–ii)

      Version of Record online: 19 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3027

  2. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue information
    3. Editorial
    4. Special issue review articles
    5. Special issue research article
    1. Prostate MR: current status, challenges and future directions (pages 1–2)

      Naranamangalam R. Jagannathan

      Version of Record online: 30 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3011

  3. Special issue review articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue information
    3. Editorial
    4. Special issue review articles
    5. Special issue research article
    1. Prostate cancer detection and diagnosis: the role of MR and its comparison with other diagnostic modalities – a radiologist's perspective (pages 3–15)

      Tobias Penzkofer and Clare M. Tempany-Afdhal

      Version of Record online: 3 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3002

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Current prostate cancer diagnosis is, for the most part, based on systematic biopsy without direct visualization of suspicious targets using transrectal ultrasound (TRUS, left). Although many cancers are diagnosed using the TRUS approach, direct visualization and targeted biopsy are still desirable. Multiparametric MRI (right, suspicious lesion in the left peripheral zone) and MRI-guided prostate biopsy are being used to improve this situation with promising results, but other modalities, such as elastography, are also under investigation. This review summarizes the imaging modalities used and under investigation today for prostate cancer detection and diagnosis.

    2. Role of MRI in prostate cancer detection (pages 16–24)

      Amita Shukla-Dave and Hedvig Hricak

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2934

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Today, some centers are using multi-parametric MRI (incorporating physiological and metabolic MR methods, such as dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI and/or 1H MR Spectroscopic Imaging) with multi-planar T1- and T2-weighted MRI for the initial workup of patients with prostate cancer. There is a need for larger, multi-centric, prospective trials of advanced MRI methods to determine whether MRI can play a broader role in improving routine clinical care.

    3. Diffusion-weighted MRI and its role in prostate cancer (pages 25–38)

      Tsutomu Tamada, Teruki Sone, Yoshimasa Jo, Akira Yamamoto and Katsuyoshi Ito

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2956

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) has the ability to qualitatively and quantitatively represent the diffusion of water molecules by the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), which reflects indirectly the tissue cellularity. DW-MRI is characterized by a short acquisition time without the administration of contrast medium. T2-weighted image (T2WI) shows an area of low signal intensity in the middle left region of the peripheral zone (arrow). Two images of DWI and T2WI are successfully co-registered using fusion software, and the fused image (DWI fused on T2WI) demonstrates the correspondence of the abnormal signal area on the two images (arrow).

    4. Mapping of prostate cancer by 1H MRSI (pages 39–52)

      Thiele Kobus, Alan J. Wright, Tom W. J. Scheenen and Arend Heerschap

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2973

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This review deals with the status and prospects to move MRSI to routine clinical use for prostate cancer management. Important aspects are data acquisition, post-processing, the data content and the clinical questions that can be answered with MRS for the prostate.

    5. Multidimensional MR spectroscopic imaging of prostate cancer in vivo (pages 53–66)

      M. Albert Thomas, Rajakumar Nagarajan, Amir Huda, Daniel Margolis, Manoj K. Sarma, Ke Sheng, Robert E. Reiter and Steven S. Raman

      Version of Record online: 31 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2991

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Localized two-dimensional (2D) MRS offers improved spectral dispersion. However, recording of multi-voxel based 2D MRS combined with 2D/three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) using conventional phase-encoding can be very time-consuming. There have been attempts showing the feasibility of extending the echo planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) technique to record four-dimensional (4D) echo-planar correlated spectroscopic imaging (EP-COSI) and J-resolved spectroscopic imaging (EP-JRESI). Our recent pilot results demonstrate further acceleration using non-uniform undersampling (NUS)-based acquisition and reconstruction using compressed sensing (CS). A comprehensive summary of recent developments of multidimensional MRS pertinent to prostate cancer (PCa) detection/management is reviewed here: original versions of 2D MRS sequences with theory of 2D MRS and spectral apodization filters, EP-COSI/EP-JRESI and modified versions.

    6. Role of high-field MR in studies of localized prostate cancer (pages 67–79)

      Miriam W. Lagemaat and Tom W. J. Scheenen

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2967

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Technically, prostate MR would probably not have been where it is at the moment, without the emerging use of 3 T MR systems. The multi-parametric (MP) MRI exam developed at 3 T provides multifunctional information for the management of prostate cancer. Prostate MR at 7 T is still in its infancy but may also result in reverse-engineering of essential technical improvements to lower field strengths, analogous to what the step from 1.5 to 3 T invoked.

    7. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy of human body fluids and tissues in relation to prostate cancer (pages 80–89)

      Virendra Kumar, Durgesh K. Dwivedi and Naranamangalam R. Jagannathan

      Version of Record online: 4 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2979

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In vitro NMR spectroscopic analysis of prostate tissue extracts and prostatic fluid is a very powerful technique to investigate the metabolic changes in prostate cancer. However, few studies have reported this in the literature, and it has not been utilised to its potential in relation to prostate cancer. NMR spectroscopic studies not only help to detect prostate cancer and to understand in vivo spectroscopy, but also help to investigate the biochemical and metabolic changes associated with cancer. The technique may prove to be more useful in the light of advances in NMR technology and metabolomics analysis. We review the published research work and highlight the potential of such studies for future work.

    8. High-resolution magic angle spinning 1H MRS in prostate cancer (pages 90–99)

      Emily A. Decelle and Leo L. Cheng

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2944

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men worldwide. Studies using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) 1H MRS have found that the quantification of individual metabolite levels and metabolite ratios, as well as metabolomic profiles, shows the potential to improve accuracy in PCa detection, diagnosis and monitoring. Here, we review publications of HRMAS 1H MRS and its use in the study of intact human prostate tissue.

  4. Special issue research article

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue information
    3. Editorial
    4. Special issue review articles
    5. Special issue research article
    1. The role of metabolic imaging in radiation therapy of prostate cancer (pages 100–111)

      V. Y. Zhang, A. Westphalen, L. Delos Santos, Z. L. Tabatabai, K. Shinohara, D. B. Vigneron and J. Kurhanewicz

      Version of Record online: 12 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3007

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The total choline to creatine (tCho/Cr) ratio obtained from post-radiation prostate biopsies was significantly higher for indentifying recurrent aggressive vs. indolent cancer and benign prostate tissue, suggesting the use of a higher theshold tCho/Cr ratio in future in vivo 1H MSRI studies could improve the selection and therapeutic planning for patients who would benefit most from salvage focal therapy after failed radiation therapy.

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