Multidimensional MR spectroscopic imaging of prostate cancer in vivo (pages 53–66)
M. Albert Thomas, Rajakumar Nagarajan, Amir Huda, Daniel Margolis, Manoj K. Sarma, Ke Sheng, Robert E. Reiter and Steven S. Raman
Article first published online: 31 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2991
Localized two-dimensional (2D) MRS offers improved spectral dispersion. However, recording of multi-voxel based 2D MRS combined with 2D/three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) using conventional phase-encoding can be very time-consuming. There have been attempts showing the feasibility of extending the echo planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) technique to record four-dimensional (4D) echo-planar correlated spectroscopic imaging (EP-COSI) and J-resolved spectroscopic imaging (EP-JRESI). Our recent pilot results demonstrate further acceleration using non-uniform undersampling (NUS)-based acquisition and reconstruction using compressed sensing (CS). A comprehensive summary of recent developments of multidimensional MRS pertinent to prostate cancer (PCa) detection/management is reviewed here: original versions of 2D MRS sequences with theory of 2D MRS and spectral apodization filters, EP-COSI/EP-JRESI and modified versions.