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Keywords:

  • Learning outcome typology;
  • learning content taxonomy;
  • cognitive content domain

Abstract

This study reports the result of literature review in regards to learning outcome studies and presents a framework that integrates content types with learning outcomes. Analysis of learning outcome studies between 1992 and 2006 using the ERIC database indicated that most empirical studies have assessed the learning outcome at lower levels of recall and competence. Only eight out of 113 cases in 59 empirical studies were identified as they were assessing learning outcomes at the performance level. Implications for HRD practices and research are also discussed.