Finite element/Newton method for the analysis of Czochralski crystal growth with diffuse-grey radiative heat transfer



A quasi-steady-state, integrated system model describing high temperature heat transfer, solidification and the action of capillarity in the Czochralski crystal growth process is solved by a finite element/Newton method. The numerical analysis couples the calculation of the temperature field in all phases and the determination of the melt/crystal and melt/gas interfaces and the crystal radius free boundaries. The analysis includes conductive heat transfer in the melt, crystal, crucible, pedestal, heater and the surrounding insulation and diffuse-grey radiation, which couples the heat transfer between surfaces, the crystal radius and the melt/gas free boundary through the view factors. Finite element approximations are used to reduce the entire problem to a coupled set of non-linear algebraic equations. These are solved simultaneously by Newton's method with the Jacobian matrix computed by a combination of closed form expressions and finite difference approximations. Quadratic convergence of the Newton iteration is demonstrated along with a factor of four increase in computational efficiency over a successive iteration procedure that decouples the calculation of radiation from the rest of the heat transfer model.