Olgierd C. Zienkiewicz (18 May 1921–2 January 2009)

Authors

  • Robert L. Taylor,

  • Roland W. Lewis


original image

1. INTRODUCTION

Olgierd C. Zienkiewicz has died at age 87 in Swansea, Wales after a brief illness. He was known affectionately to his friends worldwide as ‘Olek’ and will be greatly missed by all. At the time of his death, Olek was Professor Emeritus and Director of the Institute for Numerical Methods in Engineering at Swansea University, and held the UNESCO Chair of Numerical Methods in Engineering at the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya in Barcelona, Spain. During his long career he was a great engineer in the construction of hydro-electric projects, author of many books and technical articles, co-founder of this Journal (with the late Richard H. Gallagher* and a leader in the founding of the International Association of Computational Mechanics. He was also an avid sailor, enjoyed snorkeling, and an adventurous gourmet.

2. EARLY YEARS IN POLAND

Olek was born on 21 May 1921 in Caterham, Surrey in England, the son of a Polish father, Kasimierz, and an English mother, Edith. At the age of two his family relocated to Poland. During the next few years the family moved several times, which often interrupted his studies. Thus, at an early age he developed the ability to learn new subjects from reading and personal tutors. Olek had a phenomenal memory and could in late life clearly recall poems of the Iliad learned from his Latin tutor, sing the Polish songs of Wladyslaw Szpilman and recall salient points from any of his publications. In the early 1930s the family settled in Katowice where his father had attained a position as a judge in the regional court. To prepare for university, Olek was sent to a boarding school in Rydzyna where he studied science subjects, literature and learned the art of boat building. However, in the second year of his studies he had health problems starting with a septic finger and then an injury suffered while playing the Polish game ‘Palant’. During the game Olek was struck in the area of his hip by a thrown ball. This resulted in a serious infection in his hip joint, Osteomyelitis eventually fusing the joint. In June 1939, after a long recovery in which he was in and out of hospitals, Olek managed to complete his high school studies in the field of mathematics, descriptive geometry and physics. In addition he was required to learn a foreign language. He wanted to use English as by this time he was conversant in this language as well as Polish. His mother, however, had other ideas and thus he chose German. During the summer of 1939, he was able to build a sail boat he had started in Rydzyna and learned the art of sailing. His love of sailing instilled a desire to study naval architecture at university. However, none of the three polytechnic universities in Poland offered the subject. Thus, he chose civil engineering and was in Warsaw preparing for entrance exams to the university when the Second World War began.

3. WAR YEARS

In September 1939 Olek, his sister and mother were all in Warsaw, where they remained for the first 2 months of the war. During the first month, Olek participated in the building of barricades and digging trenches for the defense of the city. After the first 2 months, times became more difficult and food became scarce. Because of his hip problem he was not called into the army—a fact that may have saved his life. At the end of October, his father was able to get permission for the family to return to Katowice where preparations to leave Poland were started. His father, being well connected with authorities, was eventually able to obtain visas for the family to go to Italy. In early December they locked their home and traveled by train through Czechoslovakia and Austria to Italy. On the way Olek recalled being a tourist in Vienna, Venice and Rome. Because the family had very little money, they often stayed in monasteries where food was plentiful for their under nourished bodies. By the middle of January 1940, the family had secured official visas to France where the Polish Government in exile was situated in Angers. Here the family rented a house and Olek learned French from the son of the landlord in exchange for teaching him German. He also studied from a four volume set of physics books he had been able to bring with him from Poland. In May, however, the war again caught up with them in Angers and they moved south to Bayonne. They eventually were able to leave France on the Polish ship, Batory, embarking from St. Jean de Luz and arriving in Plymouth, England 3 days later.

The family was taken to London where they were placed in temporary housing as refugees. His father was able to contact former business associates from his earlier days in England who provided housing for them in the north of London at Highgate. By the summer of 1940 the family was settled and Olek attained a scholarship as a Polish student to attend Imperial College. Here he resumed his studies of chemistry, physics and mathematics and did so well during his first year that he was awarded an additional 3 years scholarship. During this period he had teachers who would become his longtime friends. Professor Fred Bickley taught him mathematics and later provided tutoring during his research studies and Professor A. J. S. Pippard taught structures. During the evenings, Olek was a fire-watcher and a warden. He received his Bachelor of Science degree in 1943. Olek considered technical work for the armed forces but was persuaded by Professor Pippard to undertake postgraduate studies. This he accepted and was awarded an additional 2 years scholarship. The opportunity arose for Olek to work with Professor Richard Southwell (later Sir Richard) performing research with ‘relaxation methods’. Here, during 1944–1945 he worked as a ‘computer’ with Derek Allen and Jillian Vasey. Working with Professors Pippard and Southwell, Olek performed a finite difference stress analysis of the Aswan Dam to understand potential uplift forces at the base. By mid-1945 Olek had completed his analysis and upon submission of his doctoral thesis was awarded his PhD, as well as a Diploma of Imperial College.

Having completed his doctoral studies on dams, Olek was interested in pursuing work connected with their construction. In August 1945 he secured employment with the firm of Sir William Halcrows and Partners as an engineer in charge of a survey party on the design of hydroelectric schemes in Scotland. In this capacity he was required to drive a car, which he had never done before. In the 3 weeks prior to starting actual work he enrolled in a class and gained sufficient knowledge, although no driving test was required to secure his provisional license. In September he arrived in Scotland and for the next few years worked on the design and construction of the hydro-electric schemes at Glen Afric and Mullardoch. During the second year, his first published paper on stress distribution in gravity dams appeared in the Journal of the Institute of Civil Engineers. It was here also that he met Eammon (Eddie) Dillon who was the engineer for the contractor. Typical of Olek they became close friends and during the construction period Olek encouraged and tutored Dillon in research for his doctoral thesis. This experience motivated Olek to re-enter academia and in 1949 he accepted an appointment as Lecturer at Edinburgh University. Dillon completed his thesis in 1950 to become the first of 70 (see Table I) to complete a doctorate under Olek's supervision.

Table I. Doctoral theses supervised by O. C. Zienkiewicz.
YearStudentYearStudentYearStudent
1950E. C. Dillon1976C. Humpheson1986J. Peraire
1953P. Hawkins G. M. A. Jones W. C. Zhang
1956J. Sandover R. E. Ricketts1987J. Z. Zhu
1959T.-J. Wang C. Hupeheson R. Fejzo
1960R. W. Gerstner J. F. Lyness A. Shakharami
1961R. D. Kersten D. Shantaram J. Beynham
1964Y. K. Cheung T. K. Hellen1988A. H. C. Chan
 B. Nath P. C. Jain F. Q. Shen
1968J. G. Ergatoudis1977G. N. Pande1989J. Szmelter
 S. Valliappan1978E. Oñate G. C. Huang
1969S. Ahmad N. Bicanic J. P. Vilotte
1970C. J. Parekh1979C.-T. Chang1990D. Lefebvre
1971P. W. France1980G. G. W. Mustoe Y. M. Xie
 G. C. Nayak V. Norris1991L. Bottura
 J. M. Too I. Austin X. K. Li
1972D. V. Phillips1982H. Abdel-Rahman1992J. Wu
 A. Razzaque G. D. Tong1994A. Teixeira
1973R. D. Wood J. P. de S. R. Gago1995M. Huang
 A. S. Mawenya S. Nakazawa  
 C. R. Dullage D. K. Paul  
 M. F. Yeo W. S. Abdullah  
1974P. N. Godbole1983M. Akiyama  
 G. Al-Mashidani T. Shiomi  
1975R. Delpak1984R. Löhner  
 J. S. Campbell1985Y. C. Liu  
 D. J. Naylor S. Toyoshima  

4. LECTURESHIP AT EDINBURGH

During his period in Edinburgh, he continued to work on problems related to hydraulic and structural problems encountered in hydro-electric projects. His studies were both experimental and analytical in nature, but he found that academic life also allowed time for other activities. He now had time for climbing and walking in the mountains around Edinburgh for pure enjoyment. It was also here in 1951 that he met Helen Flemming at a dance they were both attending. Helen had come to Scotland as a visiting Canadian to work in the chemistry department. After a 1 year courtship, they were married in December 1952 and for the next 5 years lived in a house that Olek had divided into three apartments. His parents occupied another of the apartments and his sister was also living in Edinburgh—so his family was once more close together. In the second year of their marriage Olek and Helen welcomed their first son, Andrew. A second son, David, was born in 1955.

In the summer of 1953, Olek returned to France on a Carnegie Scholarship to visit Electricité de France in Grenoble and to visit dams throughout the Alpine region. He made the trip with Helen and Andrew in their first car—a station wagon that allowed them to carry large amounts of luggage so that they could camp during the entire trip. It was on this excursion that Olek first learned to snorkel—a sport he enjoyed for the remainder of his life.

On returning to Edinburgh, Olek's research publications became more numerous and exhibited the intensity that was to characterize the remainder of his career. He also graduated several doctoral students during this period. In 1956, Olek received two offers for employment, one as a chief engineer for a hydroelectric project on Victoria Island in Canada and the second as a professor at the Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois. He decided to remain in academia and desired only to accept a visiting appointment at Northwestern. Unfortunately, he learned that leave for one full year from Edinburgh could not be granted. He decided to accept the risk and resigned his tenured post at Edinburgh to accept a tenure track position at Northwestern.

5. NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

Olek, Helen and family arrived at Northwestern in January 1958. It was a busy time of settling into a new country and also welcoming the arrival of their daughter, Krysia, in March. At the same time Olek was learning to adjust to the American philosophy of ‘publish or perish’. This he did well and within a year and a half was promoted to full professor. His research at Northwestern focused on structural problems, many still addressed to the behavior of dams. He continued to apply relaxation solution methods to finite difference equations throughout this period. During this period, however, he also heard of a technique that was to become known as the Finite Element Method from Professor Ray Clough of the University of California, Berkeley. Olek had earlier met Ray at a conference and later, when he visited Berkeley, they had a chance to discuss the subject more thoroughly. At this time, Olek believed that finite difference methods could solve all elasticity problems equally as well as finite element methods. However, finite element methods offered a way to solve shell problems associated with arch dams if appropriate bending elements could be developed. This he set out to accomplish but did not succeed until later.

In late 1959 Olek acquired an unfinished house and once again devoted much work to restore this to a finished condition. The family lived in the completed house less than a year before Olek was offered the Chair of Civil Engineering at Swansea. This required a personal interview in London during March 1961—unfortunately on a date when no international flights were leaving Chicago due to a snow storm. Olek, with typical tenacity, did manage to obtain a flight to Pittsburgh and then on to New York for the international flight to arrive on time in London, where he successfully obtained the appointment in which he was to acquire international fame. In August 1961 the family crossed the Atlantic by ship arriving in the U.K. in early September.

6. THE SWANSEA YEARS

In 1961 Civil Engineering was a Division of the School of Engineering at Swansea and consisted of five faculty members. During the next few years, the size grew adding staff who would later become well known also (e.g. E. Hinton, B. M. Irons, R. W. Lewis, K. Morgan, D. R. J. Owen, C. Taylor). His first research student at Swansea was Kai Cheung and together they started research on finite element methods. By 1962 they had succeeded in formulating finite element approaches using virtual work, writing computer programs and using the Atlas Computer at Harwell to solve some problems. With Cheung, Olek was successful in devising a thin plate element of rectangular form in which continuity existed only at nodes—but converged for known plate solutions.

During 1962, Olek with the assistance of a member of his staff, G. S. Holister, organized a conference at which experts in various numerical approaches for solving structural problems were invited. The conference was held in January 1963. The participants included Ray Clough, who was visiting Cambridge on sabbatical leave, C. E. Massonet and B. F. de Veubeke from Belgium, and J. R. H. Otter from London. The conference was a great success and resulted in the volume Stress Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons in 1965.

It was during this time that Olek also met Bruce Irons who was an engineer at Rolls-Royce and was also interested in finite element methods. Working jointly, they produced a triangular plate bending element that was fully conforming and which appeared in a paper at the first conference on Matrix Methods in Structural Mechanics in Dayton, Ohio. This paper became famous for also introducing the concept of the patch test to prove convergence of non-conforming elements.

It was in 1965 that Olek and Cheung showed that finite element methods could be applied to any problem formulated by a differential equation. The paper was a short one entitled ‘Finite elements in the solution of field problems’ appearing in ‘The Engineer’. Also, about this time Olek was successful in attracting Bruce Irons to Swansea as a Lecturer. This was a fortuitous appointment as Bruce was aware of much work being performed in the aeronautics industry—an example being the research of Ian Taig on the direct construction of quadrilateral elements. At Swansea this evolved into the family of isoparametric elements, which was successful in generalizing element forms for use in two- and three-dimensional problem of elasticity and other subjects based on second-order differential equations. The introduction of isoparametric elements also facilitated the development of shape function modules that, in combination with quadrature, greatly simplified the development of elements.

Olek devoted a significant portion of his activities to the solution of real engineering problems. One of the first dams he analyzed was the Clywedog Dam in Wales—this was the first time that finite elements had been used as a part of the design of a new dam. He also traveled extensively attending conferences and giving lectures at universities and industries. Through these efforts, he was quickly becoming known as the ‘Ambassador of Finite Elements’!

By 1966, the subject of finite elements had evolved to where Olek considered a book was needed. He wrote the book during the latter part of the year and this was published in 1967 by McGraw-Hill, consisting of some 250 pages and a short chapter by Kai Cheung on programming the method. The book was an immediate success and firmly established Olek worldwide as a leader in finite element theory and practice.

During the late 1960s, Olek and his students Valliappan and Nayak developed and applied finite element methods to the solution of plasticity problems. Many of the applications were to soil and rock problems associated with dam foundations. At the same time, isoparametric element formulations were being extended to higher-order interpolation and found application in the modelling of arch dams and their foundations. The use of isoparametric curved elements suggested to Olek the possibility of using them to solve thin shell problems. With Bruce Irons, Olek and their student, S. Ahmad, presented the solution to axisymmetric shell problems at the Second Conference on Matrix Methods in Structural Mechanics in 1968. They discovered, however, that when applied to very thin shells the solution diverged or ‘locked’. This was eventually solved using reduced quadrature in the work by Olek with J. M. Too and R. L. Taylor.

By the late 1960s Olek realized that publication of numerical finite element research required a new outlet, since the available journals in mechanics were more interested in theory than in solution methods. Together with Professor Richard H. Gallagher as co-editor he established the International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering, which was first published by John Wiley & Sons in 1969. The Journal first appeared as four issues per year but, due to the rapid growth of finite element and other numerical-based methods, gradually grew to the present 52 issues per year. In the early 70s the second author of this obituary became involved in the administration and running of the Journal. It was an exciting time and strong friendships were forged between the three editors, which lasted the remaining years of both Dick and Olek's lives.

During the first 20 years, Olek had been in quite robust health and was able to enjoy physical activities such as mountain climbing, snorkeling and sailing, which he had again pursued upon his return to Swansea. By the middle of 1969, however, he was experiencing some difficulty in walking due to misalignment of his hip. He underwent surgery in October, which greatly curtailed his travel and allowed a close friendship to develop with the first author of this paper.

By 1970 the activities at Swansea were producing work related to widely disparate subjects. Computers were also of sufficient power to allow for fully three-dimensional problems to be tackled and solved. In addition to the solution of increasingly complex inelastic structural problems, examples of non-structural applications included solution of the Helmholtz equation, coupled vibration of submerged structures, natural modes in harbor oscillations and transient-free surface flow—to name just a few. The topics Olek addressed during the next 25 years are too numerous to fully summarize here—the reader can consult Olek's total list of publications in the Appendix. However, some of the more important ones will be referred to.

The topic of finite elements had greatly expanded during the 3 years since his first book appeared. In 1971 the second edition appeared, which was nearly twice the size of the previous edition and remained the only book on the subject available at that time. Subsequently, the third edition appeared in 1977, followed by the fourth edition expanded to two volumes in 1989 and 1991, which was co-authored with R. L. Taylor. The fifth and sixth editions were largely written in Spain and published by Butterworth–Heinemann/Elsevier in 2000 and 2005, respectively. These editions had further expanded to three volumes and were devoted to linear problems, non-linear solids and structural problems and also to fluid dynamics.

In the mid-1970s Olek's attention had turned to the solution of fluid dynamics problems, a topic that occupied his interest for the remainder of his life. Early applications used viscous fluid flow formulations to solve forming problems. The issue of incompressibility was addressed using a penalty method and this also was used to solve other classes of problems with internal constraints—including electro-magnetics, plastic behavior and contact problems. Working with A. R. Mitchell from Dundee, Olek applied ‘upwind’ forms to develop weight functions for a Petrov–Galerkin formulation to problems with high advection. The early solution of the Navier–Stokes equations were formulated with J. C. Heinrich using these ‘upwind’ functions in isoparametric formulations. In collaboration with his student, E. Oñate, and Heinrich, they used flow formulations to solve plastic deformation of metals for both thermal extrusion and thin sheet forming. By the mid-1980s the solution to both compressible and incompressible flow problems were being regularly solved by Olek and his students. The methods also permitted solution of shallow water equations and one application was a full analysis of the tidal flow in the Bristol Channel. Starting in the late 1980s Olek searched for a scheme that could solve all classes of problems with a single algorithm. This he achieved with a method he called ‘Characteristic-Based Split (CBS) algorithm’ in collaboration with colleagues from Swansea and Barcelona, Spain.

Fluid dynamics solutions require adaptive mesh refinement in order to achieve practical and efficient answers. This necessitates use of an error estimator and here Olek, together with J. Z. Zhu, devised an efficient and accurate procedure they called ‘superconvergent patch recovery’. Today the method is known simply as the ZZ-error estimator. The method is based on the use of points in elements that have higher-order convergence rates. By making a local polynomial approximation through these points, Olek and Zhu showed that the amount of error in a solution could be reliably estimated and used with automatic mesh generators to achieve a desired solution accuracy. This elegant and practical scheme is now widely used, not only for estimators, but also to produce contour plots of element variables.

A third major research was the modelling of geotechnical materials. In these area of studies he devised models based on the theory of plasticity, viscoplasticity and generalized plasticity to model the behavior of soils and rocks. The effect of pore water was included in order to permit an assessment of consolidation and liquefaction under transient seismic loading. The results of the research was included in the book Computational Geomechanics: With Special Reference to Earthquake Engineering that Olek co-authored with A. H. C. Chan, M. Pastor, B. A. Schrefler and T. Shiomi and published with John Wiley & Sons in 1999.

The last major research mentioned is that of plate analysis by finite element methods. This is the topic that was the initial impetus for Olek to undertake research in finite element methods. He continued to explore newer methods to solve the problem throughout his time at Swansea. After initial efforts to solve thin plate theory he turned his attention to solving thick plate forms based on Reissner–Mindlin theory. Using this approach he was successful in developing a number of element forms capable of solving both thick and thin plate applications. The main problem was enforcing the transverse shear behavior without over-constraining or ‘locking’ the bending response. Initial success was achieved using ‘reduced integration’ as mentioned previously. However, by using mixed approaches he was able to show why ‘reduced integration’ was successful and, hence, the problem was fully solved.

In recognition of his achievements, Olek was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society of London and a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering in 1979. Through his travels around the world, Olek recognized a need for an international organization devoted to numerical methods. Through his efforts, the International Association of Computational Mechanics was founded in 1986 and he served 4 years as its first President. During the mid 1980s, he also was co-chairman for the International Advisory Panel of the World Bank Chinese University Project. Under this programme he sent experts to the Peoples Republic of China in order to increase technical interactions in that area of Asia.

After a career spanning five decades, Olek retired as Head of Civil Engineering at Swansea in 1988. Later, the Zienkiewicz Library was established in the Department as a lasting memorial to his contributions. Although, formally retired, he continued to make contributions in both the technical and professional areas for the next 20 years.

7. THE RETIREMENT YEARS

Following his retirement in 1988, Olek served as Director of the Institute for Numerical Methods in Engineering at Swansea and continued his research and supervision of doctoral students. Shortly after his retirement he was awarded the title of Commander of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II in recognition of his lifetime accomplishments.

During the next several years, Olek held a visiting professorship at several major international universities. In 1989 he held the Joe C. Walters Chair at The University of Texas in Austin. He was the Jubilee Visiting Professor at Chalmers University of Technology in Goteborg, Sweden in 1990 and 1992. In 1991 he was the Royal Society Kan Tong Po Visiting Professor at the University of Hong Kong where he renewed collaboration with his first doctoral student, Kai Cheung. From 1989 to the time of his death, he was a visiting professor in the International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering (CIMNE) at the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya in Barcelona, Spain. On his annual visits to Spain he had opportunities of collaborating with many CIMNE scholars, including his former student Eugenio Oñate. In 1989 Olek was appointed as the UNESCO Chair of Numerical Methods in Engineering at UPC. This was the very first UNESCO chair in the world and arose from interactions with Geoff Holister who was working at UNESCO in developing support for technology and engineering. The concept of such a position arose from an idea in the book Small World by David Lodge. In the book, professors of literature imagined an UNESCO Chair that would allow them to retire into a world of continuous travel with no lecture obligations and an extravagant salary! The award to Olek attracted considerable interest by others and today there exist some three-hundred UNESCO Chairs worldwide.

8. HONORS AND AWARDS

Through his research and associations with scholars throughout the world, Olek achieved an international reputation as the leader in the development of finite element methods. This led to his election as foreign member in the Academia Nazionale Dei Lincei, Rome, the Chinese Academy of Science, the Polish Academy of Science and the U.S. National Academy of Engineering. He has also received many honors in addition to those cited above. He received the James Alfred Ewing Medal of the Institute Civil Engineers for distinguished contributions to research, The Nathan Newmark Medal of the American Society of Civil Engineers for outstanding contributions to Structural and Soil Mechanics, the Worcester Warner Reid Medal and the Timoshenko Medal of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers for important contributions to engineering, The Royal Medal by the Royal Society for pioneering research and development of the finite element method, The Newton–Gauss Medal of the International Association of Computational Mechanics, the Gold Medal of the Fiftieth Anniversary of Krakow University, and the Leonardo da Vinci Medal by the European Society for Engineering Education for outstanding contributions to engineering education. In 2005, Olek received the prestigious Prince Philip Medal of the Royal Academy of Engineering.

Olek has received 28 honorary doctoral degrees from universities throughout the world, including those in Argentina, Austria, Belgium, China, England, France, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, U.S.A. and Wales.

9. LEGACY

The adage that ‘behind every great man is a great woman’ was especially true for Olek and Helen. Helen was his team mate who was hostess to many students, colleagues and friends who regularly visited their home. During the last 25 years she also accompanied him on his travels and appointments in the various locations cited above. She was a loyal partner throughout all of his activities.

In addition to his scholarly activities and world travels, Olek was adventurous in the food he ate—ranging from very rare steaks, plates of escargot, tapas heavy on the garlic to oysters. Olek and Helen also roamed over south Wales searching for fungi, berries, samphire or anything else they deemed to be edible! Accompanying him on a drive was another type of adventure, as Olek enjoyed many diversions to see new sights. Often travelling over roads that were nearly impassable, he would at the same time discuss his latest works or current interests!

Olek leaves a legacy in the form of his books and writings as well as in many students and collaborators who benefited from his advice and tutoring. He was indeed a distinguished scholar and good friend to many. He will be greatly missed but not forgotten.

PUBLICATIONS OF PROF. O. C. ZIENKIEWICZ

BOOKS

1. Zienkiewicz OC (with Y. K. Cheung). The Finite Element Method in Continuum and Structural Mechanics. McGraw-Hill: New York, 1967; 272 (translated into Japanese and Russian).

2. Zienkiewicz OC. The Finite Element in Engineering Science. McGraw-Hill: New York, 1971; 521 (translated into Japanese, German, French, Polish and Russian).

3. Zienkiewicz OC. The Finite Element Method (3rd edn). McGraw-Hill: New York, 1977; 787 (translated into Spanish, French and Japanese).

4. Zienkiewicz OC, Morgan K. Finite Elements and Approximation. Wiley: New York, 1983; 328 (translated into Russian and Japanese).

5. Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor RL. The Finite Element Method: Basic Formulation and Linear Problems (4th edn). McGraw-Hill: New York, 1989; 648 (translated to Spanish, French and Japanese).

6. Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor RL. The Finite Element Method, Solids and Fluid Mechanics, Dynamics and Non-Linearity. McGraw-Hill: New York, 1991; 807.

7. Zienkiewicz OC, Chan AHC, Pastor M, Schrefler BA, Shiomi T. Computational Geomechanics: with Special Reference to Earthquake Engineering. Wiley: New York, 1999.

8. Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor RL. The Finite Element Method: The Basis. Butterworth–Heinemann: London, 2000; 689.

9. Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor RL. The Finite Element Method: Solid Mechanics. Butterworth-Heinemann: London, 2000; 459.

10. Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor RL. The Finite Element Method: Fluid Dynamics. Butterworth-Heinemann: London, 2000; 334.

11. Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor RL, Zhu JZ. The Finite Element Method: its Basis and Fundamentals. Elsevier: Amsterdam, 2005; 733.

12. Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor RL. The Finite Element Method for Solid and Structural Mechanics. Elsevier: Amsterdam, 2005; 631.

13. Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor RL, Nithiarasu P. The Finite Element Method for Fluid Dynamics. Elsevier: Amsterdam, 2005; 435.

EDITED BOOKS

1. Zienkiewicz OC, Holister GS. Stress Analysis. Wiley: New York, 1965.

2. Stagg KG, Zienkiewicz OC. Rock Mechanics. Wiley: New York, 1968 (translated into Spanish).

3. Gallagher RH, Zienkiewicz OC. Optimum Structural Design. Wiley: New York, 1973.

4. Gallagher RH, Oden JT, Taylor C, Zienkiewicz OC. Finite Elements in Fluids. Wiley: New York, 1975.

5. Gallagher RH, Zienkiewicz OC, Oden JT, Morandi-Cecci M, Taylor C. Finite Elements in Fluids. Wiley: New York, 1978.

6. Zienkiewicz OC, Lewis RW, Stagg KG. Numerical Methods in Offshore Engineering. Wiley: New York, 1980.

7. Glowinski R, Rodin E, Zienkiewicz OC. Energy Methods in Finite Element Analysis. Wiley: New York, 1980.

8. Lewis RW, Morgan K, Zienkiewicz OC. Numerical Methods in Heat Transfer. Wiley: New York, 1981.

9. Pande GN, Zienkiewicz OC. Soil Mechanics—Transient and Cyclic Loads. Wiley: New York, 1982.

10. Gallagher RH, Norrie DH, Oden JT, Zienkiewicz OC. Finite Elements in Fluids. Wiley: New York, 1983.

11. Atluri SN, Gallagher RH, Zienkiewicz OC. Hybrid and Mixed Finite Element Methods. Wiley: New York, 1983.

12. Atrek E, Gallagher RH, Ragsdell KM, Zienkiewicz OC. New Directions in Optimum Structural Design. Wiley: New York, 1984.

13. Gallagher RH, Oden JT, Zienkiewicz OC, Kawai T, Kawahara M. Finite Elements in Fluids. Wiley: New York, 1984.

14. Pittman JFT, Zienkiewicz OC, Wood RD, Alexander JM. Numerical Analysis of Forming Processes. Wiley: New York, 1984.

15. Gallagher RH, Carey G, Oden JT, Zienkiewicz OC. Finite Elements in Fluids. Wiley: New York, 1985.

16. Babuska I, Zienkiewicz OC, Gago J, de Oliveira ER. Accuracy Estimates and Adaptive Refinements in Finite Element Computations. Wiley: New York, 1986.

17. Gallagher RH, Glowinski R, Gresho PA, Oden JT, Zienkiewicz OC. Finite Elements in Fluids. Wiley: New York, 1988.

PAPERS AND ARTICLES

1. Zienkiewicz OC. The stress distribution in gravity dams. Journal of Institute of Civil Engineers 1947; 244–271.

2. Zienkiewicz OC, Hawkins P. Transmission of water–hammer pressures through surge tanks. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers 1954; 23:629–638.

3. Zienkiewicz OC. The computation of shrinkage and thermal stresses in massive structures. Proceedings—Institution of Civil Engineers, Pt.1, 1955; 88–100.

4. Zienkiewicz OC. Stability of parallel branch and differential surge tanks. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers 1956; 7:265–271.

5. Zienkiewicz OC. A note on a new theory of hydrodynamic lubrication of parallel surface thrust bearings. Proceedings of Ninth Congress on Applied Mechanics, 1956; 251–258.

6. Zienkiewicz OC. The effect of pore pressures on stresses in gravity dams. Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, PO 4, 1956; 1042-1–1042-16.

7. Zienkiewicz OC, Sandover JA. The undular surge wave. Proceedings of Seventh International Congress of Hydraulic Research, 1957; D-25-1–D-25-12.

8. Zienkiewicz OC. Temperature distribution within lubricating films between parallel bearing surfaces and its effect on the pressure developed. Proceedings of Conference on Lubrication and Wear, Institute of Mechanical Engineers, 1957; 1–7.

9. Sandover JA, Zienkiewicz OC. Experiments on surge waves. Water Power 1957; 418–424.

10. Zienkiewicz OC, Park J. Effect of pore pressure on stress distribution in some porous elastic solids. Water Power 1958; 12–19.

11. Charnes A, Lemke CE, Zienkiewicz OC. Virtual work, linear programming and elastic limit analysis. Proceedings of the Royal Society A 1959; 110–116.

12. Zienkiewicz OC. Comparative study of segmented arch rings. Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers EM 1, 1960; 19–39.

13. Ely JF, Zienkiewicz OC. Torsion of compound bars—a relaxation solution. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 1960; 356–365.

14. Zienkiewicz OC, Gerstner RW. A stress function approach to interface and mixed boundary condition problems (Boundary conditions and finite difference techniques). International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 1960; 93–101.

15. Hunter WB, Zienkiewicz OC. Effect of temperature variations across the lubricant films in the theory of hydrodynamic lubrication. Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science 1960; 52–58.

16. Zienkiewicz OC. Aplicacao das technicas de diferencas finitas no estudo de barragens e cascas. Electricitade 1960; 1–16.

17. Zienkiewicz OC, Gerstner RW. Foundation elasticity effects in gravity dams. Proceedings—Institution of Civil Engineers 1961; 200–216.

18. Zienkiewicz OC, Gerstner RW. Stress analysis and special problems of prestressed dams. Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, PO 1, 1961; 7–43.

19. Zienkiewicz OC, Gerstner RW. The method of interface stress adjustment and its uses in the solution of some plane elasticity problems. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 1961; 267–276.

20. Zienkiewicz OC, Veltrop JA, Shieh WTJ. Stresses at the base of the long spillway and other cantilever walls. Proceedings of Seventh International Congress on Large Dams, Rome, 1961; R.59, 1–17.

21. Wang WM, Lee SL, Zienkiewicz OC. A numerical analysis of large deflection of beams. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 1961; 219–228.

22. Zienkiewicz OC. Analysis of visco-elastic behaviour of concrete structures with particular reference to thermal stresses. Proceedings of the American Concrete Institute 1961; 383–394.

23. Zienkiewicz OC, Schimming B. Torsion on non homogeneous bars with axial symmetry. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 1962; 15–23.

24. Zienkiewicz OC, Gerstner RW. Design procedures for prestressed dams. Water Power 1962; 99–104.

25. Gerstner RW, Zienkiewicz OC. A note on anchorage zone stresses. Journal of the American Concrete Institute 1962; 970–975.

26. Zienkiewicz OC, Cruz C. The use of the slab analogy in the determination of thermal stresses. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 1962; 285–296.

27. Gerstner RW, Zienkiewicz OC. Stress analysis of the plane rocker. Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, EM4, 1962; 15–25.

28. Zienkiewicz OC, Cruz CR. The equivalent load method for elastic thermal stress problems with particular application to arch dams. Proceedings—Institution of Civil Engineers 1962; 15–34.

29. Zienkiewicz OC. The influence of creep on the behaviour of massive concrete structures. Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India, January 1962. Indian Journal of Power and River Valley Development 1963; 96–102, Special Issue.

30. Zienkiewicz OC. Stress analysis of hydraulic structures including pore pressures effects. Water Power 1963; 104–108.

31. Zienkiewicz OC, Nath B. Earthquake hydrodynamic pressures on arch dams—an electric analogue solution. Proceedings—Institution of Civil Engineers 1963; 165–176.

32. Zienkiewicz OC, Cheung YK. Finite element method of analysis for arch dam shells and comparison with finite difference procedures. Proceedings of Symposium on Theory of Arch Dams, University of Southampton, 1964. (Theory of Arch Dams. Pergamon Press: Oxford, 1965; 123–139).

33. Zienkiewicz OC, Cheung YK. Buttress dams on complex rock foundations. Water Power 1964; 193–198.

34. Zienkiewicz OC, Dundurs J. Thermal deformations and stresses in visco-elastic plates. Proceedings of Conference on Thermal Loading and Creep in Structures and Components, Institute of Mechanical Engineers, London, May 1964; 6.9–6.16.

35. Zienkiewicz OC, Cheung YK. The finite element method for analysis of elastic isotropic and orthotropic slabs. Proceedings—Institution of Civil Engineers 1964; 471–488.

36. Zienkiewicz OC. Hydrodynamic pressures on water retaining or submerged structures during earthquakes. Water Power 1964; 382–388.

37. Zienkiewicz OC, Nath B. Analogue procedure for the determination of virtual mass. Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, HY 5, 1964; 69–81.

38. Dundurs J, Zienkiewicz OC. Stresses around circular inclusions due to thermal gradients with particular reference to reinforced concrete. Journal of the American Concrete Institute 1964; 1523–1532.

39. Zienkiewicz OC, Cheung YK. Stresses in buttress dams. Water Power 1965; 69–75.

40. Zienkiewicz OC. Problems of rock mechanics. The Engineer. Institution of Civil Engineering Lecture. 1965.

41. Zienkiewicz OC. Two dimensional stress analysis and plate flexure by finite differences. In Stress Analysis, Zienkiewicz OC and Holister GS (eds), Chapter 2. Wiley: New York, 1965; 20–40.

42. Zienkiewicz OC. Finite element procedure in the solution of plate and shell problems. In Stress Analysis, Zienkiewicz OC, Holister GS (eds), Chapter 8. Wiley: New York, 1965; 120–144.

43. Mura T, Otsuka A, Zienkiewicz OC. Application of the slab analogy to the study of stress fields induced by imperfections in crystals. International Journal of Solids and Structures 1965; 179–188.

44. Fishwick W, Zienkiewicz OC. Philosophy of postgraduate training in United Kingdom with particular reference to the University of Wales, Swansea. World Conference on Engineering Education, Chicago, June 1965.

45. Zienkiewicz OC, Cheung YK. Finite elements in the solution of field problems. The Engineer, 24 September 1965.

46. Cheung YK, Zienkiewicz OC. Plates and tanks on elastic foundations—and application of finite element methods. International Journal of Solids and Structures 1965; 451–461.

47. Zienkiewicz OC, Stagg KG. The in-situ testing of rock deformability. Cera Research Report No. 2, October 1965; 1–59.

48. Zienkiewicz OC, Mayer P, Cheung YK. Solution of anisotropic seepage by finite elements. Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, EM1, 1965; 111–120.

49. Bazeley GP, Cheung YK, Irons BM, Zienkiewicz OC. Triangular elements in plate bending. Conforming and non-conforming solutions. Proceedings of Conference on Matrix Methods in Structural Mechanics, Wright Patterson Air Force Institute of Technology, Ohio, October 1965; 547–576.

50. Zienkiewicz OC, Irons BM, Nath B. Natural frequencies of complex, free or submerged structures by the finite element method. Finite Elements in Vibrations (Conference on Vibrations Institute of Civil Engineering, London, April 1965). Butterworths: London, 1966.

51. Zienkiewicz OC, Cheung YK, Stagg KG. Stresses in anisotropic media with particular reference to problems of rock mechanics. Journal of Strain Analysis 1966; 172–182.

52. Zienkiewicz OC, Cheung YK. Plate and shell problems, Finite element displacement approach. Symposium on Digital Computers in Structural Engineering, Newcastle University, July 1966.

53. Zienkiewicz OC, Cheung YK. Application of the finite element method to problems of rock mechanics. Proceedings of First International Congress on Rock Mechanics, Lisbon, 1966; 661–666.

54. Zienkiewicz OC, Stagg KG. The cable method of in-situ rock testing. Proceedings of First Congress on Rock Mechanics, Lisbon, 1966; 667–672.

55. Zienkiewicz OC, Watson M. Some creep effects in stress analysis with particular reference to concrete pressure vessels. Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Design 1966; 406–412.

56. Zienkiewicz OC. The Finite element method and its effect in vibration analysis. Symposium on Numerical Methods in Vibration Problems, University of Southampton, July 1967.

57. Zienkiewicz OC, Watson M, Cheung YK. Stress analysis by the finite element method—thermal effects. Conference on Prestressed Concrete Pressure Vessels, Institute of Civil Engineering, March 1967; 59–64.

58. Zienkiewicz OC, Cheung YK, Ribeiro AA, Azwedo MC, Ferreira MJE, Pedro JO. Comparison of analytical and experimental results in the design of a hollow gravity dam. Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress on Large Dams, Istanbul, 1967; 533–553.

59. Zienkiewicz OC, Stagg KG. Cable method of in-situ rock testing. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Science 1967; 273–300.

60. Zienkiewicz OC, Anderson RG, Irons BM. Buttress dam analysis for earthquake loads. Water Power 1967; 359–362.

61. Zienkiewicz OC. The finite element technique as a mathematical approximation and a civil engineering tool. Birmingham University Symposium, April 1967.

62. Fraeijs de Veubeke B, Zienkiewicz OC. Strain energy bounds in finite element analysis by slab analogy. Journal of Strain Analysis 1967; 265–271.

63. Zienkiewicz OC, Bahrani AK, Arlett PL. Solution of three dimensional field problems by the finite element method. The Engineer. 27 October 1967.

64. Zienkiewicz OC, Cheung YK. Stresses in shafts. The Engineer. 24 November 1967.

65. Zienkiewicz OC. Engineering research, University College of Swansea. The Consulting Engineer. December 1967.

66. Preece BW, Kwiecinski M, Zienkiewicz OC. Ultimate load behaviour of Mangla Dam baffle blocks (Analysis and model tests). The Structural Engineer 1967; 307–314.

67. Ergatoudis I, Irons BM, Zienkiewicz OC. Curved Isoparametric quadrilateral elements for finite element analysis. International Journal of Solids and Structures 1968; 31–42.

68. Ergatoudis I, Irons BM, Zienkiewicz OC. Three dimensional analysis of arch dams and their foundations. Symposium Arch Dams, Institution of Civil Engineers, Paper 4, April 1968; 21–34.

69. Zienkiewicz OC, Parekh CJ, King IP. Arch dams analysed by a linear finite element shell solution program. Symposium Arch Dams, Institution of Civil Engineers, Paper 3, April 1968; 17–20.

70. Zienkiewicz OC, Valliappan S, King IP. Stress analysis of rock as a ‘no-tension’ material. Geotechnique 1968; 56–66.

71. Irons BM, Zienkiewicz OC. The Isoparametric finite element system—a new concept in finite element analysis. Joint British Committee Stress Analysis Conference, Recent Techniques in Stress Analysis, London, 1968; 3-35–3-40.

72. Cheung YK, King IP, Zienkiewicz OC. Slab bridges with arbitrary shape and support conditions—a general method of analysis based on finite elements. Proceedings—Institution of Civil Engineers 1968; 9–36.

73. Ahmad S, Irons BM, Zienkiewicz OC. Curved thick shell and membrane elements with particular reference to axi-symmetric problems. Proceedings of Second Conference on Matrix Methods in Structural Mechanics, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 1968.

74. Anderson RG, Irons BM, Zienkiewicz OC. Vibration and stability of plates using finite elements. International Journal of Solids and Structures 1968; 103-1-55.

75. Zienkiewicz OC. Continuum mechanics as an approach to rock mass problems. In Rock Mechanics in Engineering Practice, Stagg KG, Zienkiewicz OC (eds), Chapter 8. Wiley: New York, 1968; 237–273.

76. Zienkiewicz OC, Watson M, King IP. A numerical method of visco-elastic stress analysis. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 1968; 807–827.

77. Arlett PL, Bahrani AK, Zienkiewicz OC. Application of finite elements to the solution of Helmholtz's equation. Proceedings of the IEE 1968; 1762–1766.

78. Zienkiewicz OC, Valliappan S, King IP. Elasto-plastic solution of engineering problems; initial stress, finite element approach. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1969; 75–100.

79. Zienkiewicz OC, Valliappan S. Analysis of real structures for creep, plasticity and other complex constitutive laws. In Structure, Solid Mechanics and Engineering Design, Te'eni M (ed.), Part 1. University of Southampton, 1969; 27–48.

80. Douglas MR, Parekh CJ, Zienkiewicz OC. Finite element program for slab bridge design. Symposium on Concrete Bridge Design, American Concrete Institute, Chicago, March 1969; 1–15.

81. Davies JD, Parekh CJ, Zienkiewicz OC. Analysis of slabs with edge beams. Symposium on Concrete Bridge Design, American Concrete Institute, Chicago, March 1969; 117–165.

82. Zienkiewicz OC, Irons BM, Ergatoudis I, Ahmad S, Scott FC. Isoparametric and associated element families for two and three dimensional analysis. Finite Element Methods in Stress Analysis, Technical University of Trondheim, Norway. Tapir Press, January 1969; 383–432.

83. Zienkiewicz OC, Best B. Some non linear problems in soil and rock mechanics—finite element solution. Conference on Rock Mechanics, University College of Townsville, May 1969; 1–30.

84. Zienkiewicz OC, Newton RE. Coupled vibrations of a structure submerged in a compressible fluid. Proceedings of International Symposium on Finite Element Techniques, Stuttgart 1–15, 1969; 360–379.

85. Owen DRJ, Holbeche J, Zienkiewicz OC. Elastic plastic analysis of fibre reinforced materials. Fibre Science and Technology 1969; 185–207.

86. Zienkiewicz OC. The finite element method. In Handbook of Applied Hydraulics (3rd edn), Davis CV, Sorenson KE (eds), Chapter 10. McGraw Hill: New York, 1969.

87. Zienkiewicz OC. Prestressing in dams. In Handbook of Applied Hydraulics (3rd edn), Davis CV, Sorenson KE (eds), Chapter 16. McGraw Hill: New York, 1969.

88. Taylor C, Patil BS, Zienkiewicz OC. Harbour oscillation: a numerical treatment for undamped natural modes. Proceedings—Institution of Civil Engineers 1969; 141–155.

89. Zienkiewicz OC, Owen DRJ. Non-linear analysis of pressure vessels. International Conference on Pressure Vessels, Brussels, 1969; 1–43.

90. Zienkiewicz OC, Parekh CJ. Transient field problems: 2 dimensional and 3 dimensional analysis by Isoparametric Finite Elements. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1970; 61–81.

91. Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor C, Gallico A. 3-dimensional finite element analysis of the Tachien Arch Dam. Water Power 1970; 1–8.

92. Zienkiewicz OC. Finite element method—from Intuition to generality. Applied Mechanics. Reviews 1970; 249–256.

93. Ahmad S, Irons BM, Zienkiewicz OC. Analysis of thick shell and thin shell structures by curved finite elements. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1970; 419–451.

94. Ahmad S, Irons BM, Zienkiewicz OC. Vibration of thick curved shells with particular reference to turbine blades. Journal of Strain Analysis 1970; 200–206.

95. Zienkiewicz OC, Valliappan S, Ergatoudis I. Finite element analysis in rock mechanics—a general review. CIRIA Technical Note 1970; 4–15.

96. Zienkiewicz OC, Irons BM. Matrix Iteration and acceleration processes in finite element problems of structural mechanics. In Numerical Methods for Non-linear Algebraic Equations, Robinowitz P (ed.), Chapter 9. Gordon and Breach: London, 1970; 183–194.

1. Ahmad S, Irons BM, Zienkiewicz OC. A simple matrix–vector handling scheme for 3 dimensional shell analysis. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1970; 509–522.

2. Irons BM, Zienkiewicz OC. Isoparametric elements. In Finite Element Techniques in Structural Mechanics, Tottenham H, Brebbia C (eds), Chapter 10. Southampton University Press: Southampton, 1970.

3. Zienkiewicz OC, Best B, Dullage C, Stagg KG. Analysis of non linear problems in rock mechanics with particular reference to jointed rock systems. Second International Congress on Rock Mechanics, Belgrade, 1970; 8–14, 1–9.

4. Zienkiewicz OC, Irons BM, Scott FC, Campbell J. 3-dimensional stress analysis. High Speed Computing of Elastic Structures, Iutam Symposium, University of Liege, 1970; 413–432.

5. Zienkiewicz OC. Numerical methods of art in rock and soil mechanics; non-linear material models. Conference of Association for Engineering Geology, Washington, U.S.A., October 1970; 141–167.

6. Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor RL, Too JM. Reduced Integration Technique in general analysis of plates and shells. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1971; 275–290.

7. Davies JD, Somervaille IJ, Zienkiewicz OC. Analysis of various types of bridges by finite element methods. Conference on Developments in Bridge design and Construction, University College, Cardiff. Crosby Lockwood & Son, 1971.

8. Zienkiewicz OC, Parekh CJ, Teply B. Three dimensional analysis of buildings composed of floor and wall panels. Proceedings—Institution of Civil Engineers 1971; 319–332.

9. Zienkiewicz OC, Phillips DV. An automatic mesh generation scheme for plane and curved surfaces by ‘isoparametric’ co-ordinates. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1971; 519–528.

10. Zienkiewicz OC. Incremental displacement in non-linear analysis. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1971; 587–92.

11. Naylor DJ, Zienkiewicz OC. Settlement analysis of a strip footing using a critical state soil model in conjunction with finite elements. Symposium on Structure and Foundations, University of Birmingham, 1971; 93–107.

12. Zienkiewicz OC, Nayak GC. A general approach to problems of plasticity and large deformation. Third Conference on Matrix Methods of Structural Mechanics, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, U.S.A., 1971; 881–932.

13. Zienkiewicz OC. Isoparametric and allied numerically Integrated elements—a review. Review paper for O.N.R International Symposium on Numerical and Computer Methods in Structural Mechanics, University of Illinois, September 1971 (also, In Numerical and Computer Methods in Structural Mechanics, Fenvis SJ, Perrone N, Robinson R, Schnobrich WC (eds). Academic Press: New York, 1973; 13–41).

14. Zienkiewicz OC, Stagg KG, Parkeh C, Campbell J. Thermal stress and temperature fields: a finite element approach. Thermal Stresses and Thermal Fatigue, Chapter 20. Butterworths: London, 1971; 311–323 (Proceedings of the International Conference, Berkeley, England, September 1969).

15. Zienkiewicz OC, Naylor DJ. The adaptation of critical state soil mechanics for use in finite elements. Stress Strain Behaviour of Soils. Foulis GT and Co. Ltd., 1972; 537–547.

16. Nayak GC, Zienkiewicz OC. Note on the alpha-constant stiffness method for the analysis of non-linear problems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1972; 579–582.

17. Nayak GC, Zienkiewicz OC. Convenient form of stress invariants for plasticity. Proceedings of ASCE, ST 4, 1972; 949–953.

18. Zienkiewicz OC, Scott FC. On the principle of repeatability and its application in analysis of turbine and pump impellers. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1972; 445–452.

19. Nayak GC, Zienkiewicz OC. Elasto-plastic stress analysis, generalisation for various constitutive relations including strain softening. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1972; 113–135.

20. Zienkiewicz OC, Owen DRJ, Phillips DV, Nayak GC. Finite element methods in the analysis of reactor vessels. Nuclear Engineering and Design 1972; 507–541.

21. Zienkiewicz OC, Too JJM. The finite prism in analysis of thick simply supported bridge boxes. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers 1972; 147–172.

22. Zienkiewicz OC, Nayak GC, Owen DRJ. Composite and ‘overlay’ models in numerical analysis of elasto-plastic continua. In Foundations of Plasticity, Sawczuk A (ed.). Nordhoff Press: Leiden, 1972; 107–122.

23. Zienkiewicz OC, Cormeau IC. Visco-plasticity solution by finite element process. Archives of Mechanics (Archiwum Mechaniki Stosowanej), Warsaw, 1972; 873–889.

24. Stagg KG, Zienkiewicz OC, Cormeau IC. On application of a numerical visco-plastic model to rock mechanics problems. International Symposium fur Untergrundbau, Luzern, 1972; 327–325.

25. Zienkiewicz OC. Finite elements—the background story. From The Mathematics of Finite Elements and Application, Whiteman J (ed.). Academic Press: New York, 1973; 1–37.

26. Taylor C, France PW, Zienkiewicz OC. Some free surface transient problems of seepage and irrotational flow. Mathematics of Finite Elements and Application, Whiteman J (ed.). Academic Press: New York, 1973; 313–332.

27. Zienkiewicz OC, Campbell JS. Shape optimization and sequential linear programming. In Optimum Structural Design, Chapter 7, Gallagher RH, Zienkiewicz OC (eds). Wiley: New York, 1973; 109–126.

28. Zienkiewicz OC. Isoparametric elements forms in finite element analysis. Lectures for Nato Advanced Study Institute on Finite Element Method in Continuum Mechanics, Lisbon 1971, Oden JT, de Oliveira EA (eds). University of Huntsville, Alabama Press, 1973; 379–414.

29. Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor C. Weighted residual process in finite element method with particular reference to some transient and coupled problems. Lectures for Nato Advanced Study Institute on Finite Element Method in Continuum Mechanics, Lisbon 1971, Oden JT, de Oliveira EA (eds). University of Huntsville, Alabama Press, 1973; 415–458.

30. Zienkiewicz OC, Naylor DJ. Finite element studies of soils and porous media. Lectures for Nato Advanced Study Institute on Finite Element Method in Continuum Mechanics, Lisbon 1971, Oden JT, de Oliveira EA (eds). University of Huntsville, Alabama Press, 1973; 459–493.

31. Zienkiewicz OC, Lewis RW. An analysis of various time-stepping schemes for initial value problems. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 1973; 407–408.

32. Zienkiewicz OC. Constrained variational principles and penalty function methods in finite element analysis. Conference on Numerical Solution of Differential Equation, University of Dundee, Scotland, July 1973 (also, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, vol. 363. Springer: Berlin, 1974).

33. Zienkiewicz OC. Some linear and non-linear problems in fluid mechanics. From Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equation, 1973 (Proceedings of the Nato Advanced Study Institute Kjeller, Norway, Gram JC, Reidel D (eds). Dordrecht, Boston, 1974; 173–194).

34. Zienkiewicz OC, Parekh CJ, Wills AJ. The application of finite elements to heat conduction problems involving latent heat. Rock Mechanics 1973; 65–76.

35. Bossak MAJ, Zienkiewicz OC. Free vibration of initially stressed solids with particular reference to centrifugal-force effects in rotating machinery. Journal of Strain Analysis 1973; 245–252.

36. Zienkiewicz OC, Cormeau IC. Visco-plasticity and plasticity; an alternative for finite element solution of material nonlinearity. From Proceedings of Colloques Iria; Methodes de Calcul Scientifique et Techni que, Rocquencourt, December 1973; 179–199.

37. Zienkiewicz OC, Godbole PN. Flow of plastic and visco-plastic solids with special reference to extrusion and forming processes. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1974; 3–16.

38. Owen DRJ, Zienkiewicz OC. Torsion of axi-symmetric solids of variable diameter including acceleration effects. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1974; 195–212.

39. Zienkiewicz OC, Owen DRJ, Lee KN. Least square-finite element for elasto-static problems. Use of ‘reduced’ integration. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1974; 341–358.

40. Comini G, Del Guidice S, Lewis RW, Zienkiewicz OC. Finite element solution of non-linear heat conduction problems with special reference to phase change. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1974; 613–624.

41. Godole PN, Zienkiewicz OC. Finite element analysis of steady flow of non-newtonian fluids. Finite Element Methods in Engineering, University of New South Wales, 1974; 785–798.

42. Anderson CA, Zienkiewicz OC. Spontaneous Ignition: finite element solutions for steady and transient conditions. Journal of Heat Transfer (ASME) 1974; 398–404.

43. Zienkiewicz OC, Cormeau IC. Visco-plasticity—plasticity and creep in elastic solids—a unified numerical solution approach. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1974; 821–845.

44. Zienkiewicz OC, Owen DRJ, Cormeau IC. Analysis of viscoplastic effects in pressure vessels by the finite element method. Nuclear Engineering and Design 1974; 278–288.

45. Owen DRJ, Prakash A, Zienkiewicz OC. Finite element analysis of non-linear composite materials by use of overlay systems. Computers and Structures 1974; 1251–1267.

46. Zienkiewicz OC, Phillips DV, Owen DRJ. Finite element analysis of some concrete non-linearities. Theories and examples. Iabse Symposium on Concrete Structures subjected to Triaxial Stresses, Bergamo, 17–19 May 1974.

47. Zienkiewicz OC. Viscoplasticity as a computational model for deformation and collapse studies. Symposium on Non-linear Techniques and Behaviour in Structural Analysis, 2, Trrl Publ., 1974.

48. Lyness JF, Owen DRJ, Zienkiewicz OC. Finite element analysis of the steady flow of non-Newtonian fluids through parallel sided conduits. Proceedings of the Conference on Finite Element Methods in Flow Problems, University of Alabama, Huntsville Press, 1974; 489–503.

49. Zienkiewicz OC. Finite element methods in flow problems—an introduction. Proceedings of the Conference on Finite Element Methods in Flow Problems, University of Alabama, Huntsville Press, 1974; 3–4.

50. Francavilla A, Zienkiewicz OC. A note on numerical computation of elastic contact problems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1974; 913–924.

51. Zienkiewicz OC. Finite element method. In Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Mathematics for Engineers, Sneddon (ed.). Pergamon Press: Oxford, 1974; 739–44.

52. Hinton E, Razzaque A, Zienkiewicz OC, Davies JD. A simple finite element solution for plates of homogenous, sandwich and cellular construction. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Part 2, 1975; 43–65.

53. Zienkiewicz OC. Why finite elements? In Finite Elements of Fluids. Gallagher RH, Oden JT, Taylor C, Zienkiewicz OC (eds), Chapter 1. Wiley: New York, 1975; 1–23.

54. Zienkiewicz OC, Godbole PN. Viscous, incompressible flow with special reference to non-Newtonian (plastic) fluids. In Finite Elements in Fluids, Gallagher RH, Oden JT, Taylor C, Zienkiewicz OC (eds), Chapter 2. Wiley: New York, 1975; 25–55.

55. Lewis RW, Verner EA, Zienkiewicz OC. A finite element approach to two-phase flow in porous media. In Finite Elements in Fluids, Gallagher GH, Oden JT, Taylor C, Zienkiewicz OC (eds), Chapter 9. Wiley: New York, 1975; 183–199.

56. Francavilla A, Ramakrishnan CV, Zienkiewicz OC. Optimization of shape to minimise stress concentration. Journal of Strain Analysis 1975; 63–70.

57. Zienkiewicz OC. Visco-plasticity, plasticity, creep and visco-plastic flow. (Problems of small, large and continuing deformation). Computational Mechanics, Texas Institute for Computational Mechanics. Lecture Notes on Mathematics. Springer: Berlin, 1975; 297–328.

58. Lyness JF, Owen DRJ, Zienkiewicz OC. The finite element analysis of engineering systems governed by a non-linear quasi-harmonic equation. Computers and Structures 1975; 65–79.

59. Clough RW, Zienkiewicz OC. Finite element methods in analysis and design of dams (A survey of present developments, practical assumptions and outstanding problems). In Criteria and Assumptions for Numerical Analysis of Dams, Naylor DJ, Stagg KG, Zienkiewicz OC (eds). Quadrant Press: Swansea, 1975; 285–321.

60. Francavilla A, Zienkiewicz OC. Presentation of three dimensional stress for dam analysis. (Computer Graphics). In Criteria and Assumptions for Numerical Analysis of Dams, Naylor DJ, Stagg KG, Zienkiewicz OC (eds). Quadrant Press: Swansea, 1975; 387–394.

61. Zienkiewicz OC, Simonce RE, Ricketts RE. Three-dimensional analysis of a multiple arch dam. In Criteria and Assumptions for Numerical Analysis of Dams, Naylor DJ, Stagg KG, Zienkiewicz OC (eds). Quadrant Press: Swansea, 1149–1158.

62. Campbell JS, Zienkiewicz OC. Gravity dam analysis: the effect of valley width. In Criteria and Assumptions for Numerical Analysis of Dams, Naylor DJ, Stagg KG, Zienkiewicz OC (eds). Quadrant Press: Swansea, 1975; 1007–1032.

63. Ricketts RE, Zienkiewicz OC. Shape optimisation of concrete dams. In Criteria and Assumptions for Numerical Analysis of Dams, Naylor DJ, Stagg KG, Zienkiewicz OC (eds). Quadrant Press: Swansea, 1179–1206.

64. Ricketts RE, Zienkiewicz OC. Preformed ‘cracks’ and their Influence on behaviour of concrete dams. In Criteria and Assumptions for Numerical Analysis of Dams, Naylor DJ, Stagg KG, Zienkiewicz OC (eds). Quadrant Press: Swansea, 1975; 1127–1148.

65. Zienkiewicz OC. The finite element method and boundary solution procedures as general approximation methods for field problems. World Congress on Finite Element Methods in Structural Mechanics, Bournemouth, 12–17 October 1975; s1–s31.

66. Zienkiewicz OC, Humpheson C, Lewis RW. Associated and non-associated visco-plasticity and plasticity in soil mechanics. Geotechnique 1975; 617–689.

67. Zienkiewicz OC, Bettess P. Infinite elements in the study of fluid-structure interaction problems. Second International Symposium on Computing Methods in Applied Science and Engineering, Versailles, France, 1976; 133–172 (also, Lecture Notes in Physics. Springer: Berlin).

68. Zienkiewicz OC, Nath B. Dynamic fluid–structure interaction—numerical modelling of coupled problems. Earthquake and Structural Dynamics Institution of Civil Engineering, London, October 1975.

69. Zienkiewicz OC, Godbole PN. A penalty function approach to problems of plastic flow of metals with large surface deformation. Journal of Strain Analysis 1975; 180–183.

70. Zienkiewicz OC, Gallagher RH, Hood P. Newtonian and non-Newtonian viscous incompressible temperature induced flows. Finite element solutions. In Mathematics of Finite Elements and Application, Whiteman J (ed.), Vol. II, Chapter 20. Academic Press: New York, 1976; 235–267.

71. Hinton E, Rock T, Zienkiewicz OC. A note on mass lumping and related processes in the finite element method. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 1976; 245–249.

72. Zienkiewicz OC, Lewis RW, Norris VA, Humpheson C. Numerical analysis for foundations of offshore structures with special reference to progressive deformation. Paper No. SPE 5760, Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME, 1976.

73. Phillips DV, Zienkiewicz OC. Finite element analysis of concrete structures. Proceedings—Institution of Civil Engineers, Part 2, 1976; 59–88.

74. Zienkiewicz OC, Hinton E. Reduced integration, function smoothing and non-conformity in finite element analysis (with special reference to thick plates). Journal of the Franklin Institute 1976; 443–461.

75. Zienkiewicz OC. Plasticity and some of its corollaries in soil mechanics. collapse and continuing deformation under load repetition. In Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Desai CS (ed.), Vol. III. American Society of Civil Engineers, 1976.

76. Christie I, Griffiths DF, Mitchell AR, Zienkiewicz OC. Finite element methods for second order differential equations with significant first derivatives. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1976; 1389–1396.

77. Shantaram D, Owen DRJ, Zienkiewicz OC. Dynamic transient behaviour of two- and three-dimensional structures including plasticity, large deformation effects and fluid interaction. International Journal of Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 1976; 561–578.

78. Zienkiewicz OC, Brotton PM, Morgan L. A finite element primer for structural engineering. Journal of the Institution of Structural Engineers 1976; 10:387–397.

79. Zienkiewicz OC. The finite element method and the solution of some geophysical problems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 1976; 139–151.

80. Zienkiewicz OC. Stress analysis of structures and the birth of the finite element method. In Mathematical Modelling, Andycus JC, McLone RR (eds), Chapter 7. Butterworths: London, 1976; 83–97.

81. Lewis RW, Roberts GW, Zienkiewicz OC. A nonlinear flow and deformation analysis of consolidation problems. In Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Desai CS (ed.). ASCE: New York, 1976; 1106–1118.

82. Zienkiewicz OC. Recent developments, trends and application of finite elements. Keynote Address at International Conference on Finite Element Methods in Engineering, Adelaide, December 1976.

83. Heinrich JC, Huyakorn PS, Mitchell AR, Zienkiewicz OC. An ‘upwind’ finite element scheme for two-dimensional convective transport equation. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1977; 131–143.

84. Zienkiewicz OC, Humpheson C, Lewis RW. A unified approach to soil mechanics problems (Including plasticity and viscoplasticity). In Finite Elements in Geomechanics, Gudehus G (ed.), Chapter 4. Wiley: New York, 1977; 151–178.

85. Zienkiewicz OC, Pande GN. Some useful forms of isotropic yield surfaces for soil, and rock mechanics. In Finite Elements in Geomechanics, Gudehus G (ed.), Chapter 5. Wiley: New York, 1977; 171–190.

86. Zienkiewicz OC, Kelly DW, Bettess P. The coupling of the finite element method and boundary solution procedures. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1977; 355–375.

87. Zienkiewicz OC, Kelly DW, Bettess P. Marriage a la mode—the best of both worlds (Finite elements and boundary integrals). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Innovative Numerical Analysis in Applied Engineering Science, Versailles, 19–27 May 1977 (also In Energy Methods in Finite Element Analysis, Glowinski R, Rodin EY, Zienkiewicz OC (eds), Chapter 5. Wiley: New York, 1979; 81–106).

88. Hinton E, Zienkiewicz OC. A note on a simple thick finite strip. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1977; 905–907.

89. Pande GN, Owen DRJ, Zienkiewicz OC. Overlay models in time dependent non-linear material analysis. Computers and Structures 1977; 435–443.

90. Bettess P, Zienkiewicz OC. Diffraction and refraction of surface waves using finite and infinite elements. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1977; 1271–1290.

91. Zienkiewicz OC, Bauer J, Morgan K, Oñate E. A simple and efficient element for axisymmetrical shells. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1977; 1545–1558.

92. Zienkiewicz OC. Short Communication—‘A new look at the Newmark, Houbolt and other time stepping formulas. A weighted residual approach’. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 1977; 413–418.

93. Zienkiewicz OC, Lyness J, Owen DRJ. Three-dimensional magnetic field determination using a scalar potential—a finite element solution. IEEE Transactions of Magnetics 1977; 1649–1656.

94. Zienkiewicz OC, Humpheson C. Viscoplasticity—A generalised model for description of soil behaviour. In Finite Element Method in Geomechanics, Desai CS, Christian C (eds), Chapter 3. McGraw-Hill: New York, 1977; 116–147.

95. Zienkiewicz OC, Pande GN. Time-dependent multilaminate model of rocks—a numerical study of deformation and failure of rock masses. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 1977; 219–247.

96. Wood RD, Zienkiewicz OC. Geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis of beams, frames, arches and axisymmetric shells Computers and Structures 1977; 725–735.

97. Heinrich JC, Zienkiewicz OC. Quadratic finite element schemes for two-dimensional convective-transport problems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1977; 1831–1844.

98. Zienkiewicz OC, Kelly DW, Bettess P. The Sommerfield (radiation) condition on infinite domains and its modelling in numerical procedures. Presented at IRIA Third International Symposium on Computing Methods in Applied Science and Engineering, Versailles, December 1977 (Viz Lecture Notes in Mathematics, vol. 704. Springer: Berlin, 1979; 169–203).

99. Zienkiewicz OC. Numerical methods in stress analysis. The basis and some recent paths of development. From Developments in Stress Analysis, Contribution to a Volume by Holister CS (ed.), Chapter 1, October 1977; 1–25.

100. Zienkiewicz OC, Norris VA, Naylor DJ. Plasticity and viscoplasticity in soil mechanics with special reference to cyclic loading problems. Proceedings of International Conference on Finite Elements in Nonlinear Solid and Structural Mechanics, Geilo, Norway. Tapir Press, Norwegian Institute of Technology: Trondheim, August 1977, 455–485.

101. Zienkiewicz OC, Jain PC, Oñate E. Flow of solids during forming and extrusion: some aspects of numerical solutions. International Journal of Solids and Structures 1978; 15–38.

102. Kanchi MB, Zienkiewicz OC, Owen DRJ. The visco-plastic approach to problems of plasticity and creep involving geometrically nonlinear effects. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1978; 169–181.

103. Williams JR, Lewis RW, Zienkiewicz OC. A finite element analysis of the role of initial perturbations in the folding of a single viscous layer. Tectonophysics 1978; 187–200.

104. Zienkiewicz OC, Bettess P, Kelly DW. The finite element method for determining fluid loadings on rigid structures. Two-and three dimensional formulations. In Numerical Methods in Offshore Engineering, Zienkiewicz OC, Lewis RW, Stagg KG (eds), Chapter 4, Wiley: New York, 1978; 141–183.

105. Zienkiewicz OC, Bettess P. Dynamic fluid–structure interaction. Numerical modelling of the coupled problem. In Numerical Methods in Offshore Engineering, Zienkiewicz OC, Lewis RW, Stagg KG (eds), Chapter 5. Wiley: New York, 1978; 185–193.

106. Chang CT, Hinton E, Zienkiewicz OC. Non-linear response of structure–fluid-foundation systems to earthquake excitation. In Numerical Methods in Offshore Engineering, Chapter 11, Zienkiewicz OC, Lewis RW, Stagg KG (eds). Wiley: New York, 1978; 341–360.

107. Zienkiewicz OC, Norris VA, Winnicki LA, Naylor DJ, Lewis RW. A unified approach to the soil mechanics problems of offshore foundations. In Numerical Methods in Offshore Engineering, Chapter 12, Zienkiewicz OC, Lewis RW, Stagg KG (eds). Wiley: New York, 1978; 361–412.

108. Clough RW, Zienkiewicz OC. Finite element methods in analysis and design of dams. International Commission of Large Dams, Bulletin 30, January 1978; 1–95.

109. Oñate E, Zienkiewicz OC. Plastic flow of axisymmetric thin shells as a non Newtonian flow problem and its applications to stretch forming and deep drawing problems. Proceedings of the International Deep Drawing Research Group, 10th Biennial Congress, University of Warick, 1978; 29–38.

110. Zienkiewicz OC, Oñate E, Heinrich JC. Plastic flow in metal forming, 1. Coupled thermal behaviour in extrusion, 2. Thin sheet forming. Proceedings of the Winter Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers on, ‘Applications of Numerical Methods to Forming Processes’, San Francisco, December, 1978; 107–120.

111. Mroz Z, Norris VA, Zienkiewicz OC. An anisotropic hardening model for soils and its application to cyclic loading. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 1978; 203–221.

112. Zienkiewicz OC, Chang CT, Hinton E. Non linear seismic response and liquefaction. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 1978; 381–404.

113. Morgan K, Lewis RW, Zienkiewicz OC. An improved algorithm for heat conduction problems with phase change. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1978; 1191–1195.

114. Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor RL, Pande GN. Quasi-plane strain in the analysis of geological problems. Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Methods in Tunnel Design. The Institution of Civil Engineers: London, 1978; 19–40.

115. Pugh EDL, Hinton E, Zienkiewicz OC. A study of quadrilateral plate bending elements with ‘reduced’ integration. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1978; 1059–1079.

116. Saini SS, Bettess P, Zienkiewicz OC. Coupled hydrodynamic response of concrete gravity dams using finite and infinite elements. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 1978; 363–374.

117. Zienkiewicz OC, Heinrich JC. The finite element method and convection problems in fluid mechanics. In Finite Elements in Fluids, Chapter 1, Gallagher RH, Zienkiewicz OC, Oden JT, Morandi-Cecchi M, Taylor C (eds). Wiley: New York, 1978; 1–22.

118. Heinrich JC, Marshall RS, Zienkiewicz OC. Penalty function solution of coupled convective and conductive heat transfer. In Numerical Methods in Laminar and Turbulent Flow, Taylor C, Morgan K, Brebbia CA (eds). Pentech Press: Plymouth, 1978; 435–447.

119. Heinrich JC, Marshall RS, Zienkiewicz OC. Solution of Navier–Stokes equations by a penalty function finite element method. C/R/308/78, 1978.

120. Bicanic N, Hinton E, Pande GN, Zienkiewicz OC. Nonlinear seismic response of concrete gravity dams. Proceedings of the Sixth European Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Dubrovnik, 18–22 September 1978.

121. Zienkiewicz OC, Heinrich JC. A unified treatment of steady-state shallow water and two dimensional Navier–Stokes equations. Finite element penalty function approach. Proceedings of the Conference on Finite Elements in Nonlinear Mechanics, Stuttgart, September (also, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 1978; /18, 673–698 1979).

122. Bettess P, Zienkiewicz OC, Fleming CA, Heinrich JC, Austin DI. A numerical model of longshore current patterns due to a surf zone barrier. Proceedings of the 16th Coastal Engineering Conference. ASCE: New York, 1978; 776–790.

123. Zienkiewicz OC, Bettess P. Fluid–structure dynamic interaction and wave forces. An introduction to numerical treatment. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1978; 1–16.

124. Marshall RS, Heinrich JC, Zienkiewicz OC. Natural convection in a square enclosure by a finite element penalty function method using primitive fluid variables. Journal of Numerical Methods in Heat Transfer 1978; 315–330.

125. Zienkiewicz OC. The generalised finite element method and electro-magnetic problems. Proceedings of the Conference on Computational Magnetic Fields, Compumag, Grenoble, September 1978.

126. Zienkiewicz OC, Chang CT, Hinton E, Mroz Z, Norris VA. Soil behaviour under repeated loads (Research at the Institute for Numerical Methods in Engineering, University College of Swansea). Seminare sur Materiaux et Structures sous chargement cyclique, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, September 1978.

127. Cavendish JC, Hall CA, Zienkiewicz OC. Blended infinite elements for parabolic boundary value problems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1978; 1841–1851.

128. Zienkiewicz OC. New paths for the finite element method. In Mathematics of Finite Elements and Applications, Chapter 14, Whiteman J (ed.), vol. III. Academic Press: New York, 1979; 187–216.

129. Taylor RL, Zienkiewicz OC. Complimentary energy with penalty functions in finite element analysis. In Energy Methods in Finite Element Analysis, Chapter 8, Glowinski R, Rodin EY, Zienkiewicz OC (eds). Wiley: New York, 1979; 153–174.

130. Zienkiewicz OC, Heinrich JC. Solution of nonlinear second order differential equations with significant first derivatives by a Petrov–Galerkin finite element method. In Conference on the, Numerical Analysis of Singular Perturbation Problems, Croker PWH, Miller JJH (eds), Faculty of Sciences, Catholic University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Academic Press: New York, 1979; 251–273.

131. Mroz Z, Norris VA, Zienkiewicz OC. Application of an anisotropic hardening model in the analysis of elasto-plastic deformation of soils. Geotechnique 1979; 1–34.

132. Zienkiewicz OC, Chang CT, Bicanic N, Hinton E. Earthquake response of earth and concrete in the partial damage range. Proceedings of the 13th International Congress on Large Dams, R. 14, New Delhi, 1979; 1033–1047.

133. Pande GN, Zienkiewicz OC, Bicanic N. Influence of interface non-linearity on the behaviour of dams, strengthened by buttresses. Proceedings of the 13th International Congress on Large Dams, R. 36, New Delhi, 1979; 661–673.

134. Zienkiewicz OC, Oñate E. Finite element solutions of some problems of metal forming using the plastic flow approach. Methodes Numerique dans les Sciences de l'Ingenieur (Gamni). Dunod: Paris, 1979; 183–115.

135. Winnicki LA, Zienkiewicz OC. Plastic (or visco-plastic) behaviour of axisymmetric bodies subjected to non-symmetric loading—semi-analytical finite element solution. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1979; 1399–1412.

136. Zienkiewicz OC, Hara H, Bettess P. Application of finite elements to determination of wave effects on offshore structures. Boss 1979 (Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Behaviour of Offshore Structures), 1979; 383–390.

137. Heinrich JC, Oñate E, Zienkiewicz OC. Finite element solution of coupled thermal flow in metals. Proceedings of the Conference on Numerical Methods in Thermal Problems, Swansea University. Pineridge Press: Swansea, 2–6 July 1979; 980–990.

138. Caldis ES, Owen DRJ, Zienkiewicz OC. Non linear dynamic transient methods in crack propagation studies. In Non-linear and Dynamic Fracture Mechanics, Perrone N, Atluri SN (eds), ASME, AMD: New York, December 1979; 1–17.

139. Heinrich JC, Zienkiewicz OC. The finite element method and ‘upwinding’ techniques in the numerical solution of convection dominated flow problem. In Finite Element Methods for Convection Dominated Flow, Hughes JR (ed.). ASME, AMD: New York, December 1979; 105–136.

140. Kelly DW, Mustoe GGW, Zienkiewicz OC. Coupling of boundary element methods with other numerical methods. In Developments in Boundary Elements Methods—1, Chapter 10, Banerjee PK, Butterfield R (eds). Applied Science Publishers Ltd.: London, 1979; 251–285.

141. Zienkiewicz OC. Finite elements—the basic concepts. In Finite Elements in Electrical and Magnetic Field Problems, Chapter 1, Chari MVK, Sylvester PP (eds). Wiley: New York, 1980; 10–31.

142. Zienkiewicz OC, Wood WL, Taylor RL. An alternative single step, algorithm for dynamic problems. Earthquake Engineering on Structural Dynamics 1980; 31–40.

143. Zienkiewicz OC. Constitutive laws and numerical analysis for soil foundations under static, transient or cyclic loads. Boss 1979 (Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Behaviour of Offshore Structures), 391–406. Also Reprinted by Applied Ocean Research 1980; 23–31, 1980.

144. Zienkiewicz OC, Chang CT, Bettess P. Drained, undrained, consolidating and dynamic behaviour assumptions in soils; limits of validity. Geotechnique 1980; 385–395.

145. Zienkiewicz OC, Bettess P. Soil and other porous media under transient, dynamic, conditions. Basic formation. Scientific Papers of Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, Wroclaw Technical University, 1980; (32):243–254.

146. Zienkiewicz OC. Non-linear problems of soil statics and dynamics. In Non-linear Finite Element Analysis in Structural Mechanics, Wunderlich W, Stein E, Bathe KJ (eds). Springer: Berlin, 1980; 259–273.

147. Zienkiewicz OC, Chang CT, Hinton E, Leung KH. Effective stress dynamic modeling for soil structures including drainage and liquefaction. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Soils under Cyclic and Transient Loading, Balkema Press: Swansea, 1980; 351–354.

148. Zienkiewicz OC, Bettess P. Fluid structure dynamic interaction and some ‘unified’ approximation processes. International Symposium on Unification of Finite Elements Finite Differences and Calculus of Variations, University of Conneticut, 2 May 1980.

149. Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor RL. Some developments of the finite element method for fluid mechanics. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Finite Elements in Flow Problems, Calgary, Canada, vol. I, 10–13 June 1980; 1–8.

150. Nakazawa S, Pittman JFT, Zienkiewicz OC. Numerical solution of the flow and heat transfer of polymer melts. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Finite Elements in Flow Problems, Calgary, Canada, vol. I, 10–13 June 1980; 311–321.

151. Nakazawa S, Kelly DW, Zienkiewicz OC. An analysis of explicit finite element approximations for the shallow water equations. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Finite Elements and Flow Problems, Calgary, Canada, vol. II, 10–13 June 1980; 1–12.

152. Zienkiewicz OC. Finite elements: A unified problem solving and information transfer method. Proceedings of International Conference on Finite Elements in Biomechanics (Keynote Address), Tucson, AZ, 18–20 February 1980; 3–15.

153. Godbole PN, Nakazawa S, Zienkiewicz OC. Blood flow analysis by the finite element method. Proceedings of the International Conference on Finite Elements in Biomechanics. University of Arizon Press, 18–20 February 1980; 277–93.

154. Kelly DW, Nakazawa S, Zienkiewicz OC. A note on anisotropic balancing dissipation in finite element method approximation to convective diffusion problems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1980; 1705–1711.

155. Zienkiewicz OC, Chang CT, Hinton E, Leung KH. Earth dam analysis for earthquakes. Numerical solution and constitutive relations for non-linear (damage) analysis. Conference on Design of Dams to Resist Earthquakes, Institute of Civil Engineers, London, 1–2 October 1980 (Dams and Engineering, 179–194).

156. Zienkiewicz OC, Bicanic N, Fejzo R. Substitute short duration earthquake accelerograms for nonlinear analysis. Conference on Design of Dams to Resist Earthquakes, Institute of Civil Engineering, London, 1–2 October 1980 (Dams and Engineering, 17–21).

157. Zienkiewicz OC, Hinton E, Bicanic N, Fejzo R. Computational models for the transient analysis of concrete dams. Conference on Design of Dams to Resist Earthquakes, Institute of Civil Engineering, London, 1–2 October 1980 (Dams and Engineering, 171–178).

158. Zienkiewicz OC, Hinton E, Leung KH, Taylor RL. Staggered, time marching schemes in dynamic soil analysis and selective explicit extrapolation algorithms. In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Innovative Numerical Analysis for the Engineering Sciences, Shaw R et al. (eds). University of Virginia Press: Charlottesville, 1980.

159. Wood WL, Bossak M, Zienkiewicz OC. An alpha modification of Newmark's method. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1980; 1563–66.

160. Zienkiewicz OC. Finite element methods in thermal problems. In Numerical Methods in Heat Transfer, Chapter 1, Lewis RW, Morgan K, Zienkiewicz OC (eds). Wiley: New York, 1981; 1–25.

161. Bettencourt JM, Zienkiewicz OC, Cantin G. Consistent use of finite elements in time and the performance of various recurrence schemes for the heat diffusion equation. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1981; 931–938.

162. Zienkiewicz OC. Finite elements in time domain. In State-of-the-art Surveys on Finite Element Technology, Chapter 13, Noor AK, Pilkey WD (eds). ASME: NY, 1981; 405–449.

163. Williams RT, Zienkiewicz OC. Improved finite element form for the shallow water equation. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids 1981; 81–97.

164. Hinton E, Abdel Rahman HH, Zienkiewicz OC. Computational models for reinforced concrete slabs. Proceedings of the Iabse Colloquium on Advanced Mechanics of Reinforced Concrete, Delft, 1981; 303–313.

165. Zienkiewicz OC, Oñate E, Heinrich JC. A general formulation for coupled thermal flow of metals using finite elements. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1981; 1497–1514.

166. Mroz Z, Norris VA, Zienkiewicz OC. An anisotropic, critical state model for soils subject to cyclic loading. Geotechnique 1981; 451–469.

167. Zienkiewicz OC, Bettess P, Chiam TC, Emson C. Numerical methods for unbounded field problems and a new infinite element formulation. Computational Methods for Infinite Domain Media-structure Interaction. ASME, AMD: New York, November 1981; 115–148.

168. Tuomala M, Owen DRJ, Zienkiewicz OC, Nakazawa S. A penalty function finite element method in non-linear mechanics. In Numerical Methods for Coupled Problems, Hinton E, Bettess P, Lewis RW (eds). Proceedings of the International Conference U.C.S. Pineridge Press: Swansea, 7–11 September 1981; 466–477.

169. Nakazawa S, Zienkiewicz OC. Finite element analysis of flow and coupled heat transfer in polymeric fluids. In Numerical Methods for Coupled Problems, Hinton E, Bettess P, Lewis RW (eds), Proceedings of the International Conference on U.C.S. Pineridge Press: Swansea, 7–11 September 1981; 851–859.

170. Paul DK, Zienkiewicz OC. Transient dynamic analysis of reservoir–dam interaction using staggered solution schemes. In Numerical Methods for Coupled Problems, Hinton E, Bettess P, Lewis RW (eds), Proceedings of the International Conference on U.C.S. Pineridge Press: Swansea, 7–11 September 1981; 321–333.

171. Gago J, Kelly DW, Zienkiewicz OC. Adaptive finite element schemes and a-posteriori error analysis—an evaluation of alternatives. In New and Future Developments in Commercial F.E.M., Robinson J (ed.), 1981.

172. Zienkiewicz OC. Field equations for porous media under dynamic loads. Presented at Seminar on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Kausel E (ed.), Portugal, MIT Notes. MIT: Cambridge, MA, 1981.

173. Zienkiewicz OC, Bettess P. Soil and other saturated porous media under transient, dynamic conditions. General formulation and the validity of various simplifying assumptions. In Soil Mechanics—Transient and Cyclic Loads, Chapter 1, Pande G, Zienkiewicz OC (eds). Wiley: New York, 1982; 1–16.

174. Zienkiewicz OC, Chang CT, Hinton E, Leung KH. Liquefaction and permanent deformation under dynamic conditions. Numerical solution and constitutive relations. In Soil Mechanics—Transient and Cyclic Loads, Chapter 5, Pande G, Zienkiewicz OC (eds). Wiley: New York 1982; 71–104.

175. Zienkiewicz OC, Kelly DW. Finite elements—a unified problem solving and information transfer method. In Finite Elements in Biomechanics, Chapter 2, Gallagher RH, Simon BR, Johnson PC, Grass JF (eds). Wiley: New York, 1982; 9–22.

176. Zienkiewicz OC. The finite element story. In Twelve Notable Projects, Levy JC, Farvis WEJ (eds). SERC, 1982.

177. Zienkiewicz OC, Kelly DW, Gago J, Babuska I. Hierarchical finite element approaches, error estimates and adaptive refinement. In Mathematics of Finite Elements and Applications, Whiteman J (ed.), vol. IV. Academic Press: New York, 1982; 313–346.

178. Nakazawa S, Pittman JF, Zienkiewicz OC. Numerical solution of flow and heat transfer in polymer melts. In Finite Elements in Fluids, Gallagher R, Norrie DH, Oden JT, Zienkiewicz OC (eds). Wiley: New York, 1982; 251–283.

179. Gago J, Kelly DW, Zienkiewicz OC. h- and p-adaptive finite element scheme: an analysis and application. Abstract:. 4th International Conference on Finite Element Methods, Australia, 1982.

180. Pietruszczak ST, Zienkiewicz OC. Application of a combined isotropic-kinematic hardening rule in the finite element analysis of a scale model footing test. Geotechnique 1982.

181. Zienkiewicz OC. Generalized plasticity and some models for geomechanics. In Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Martins DJB (ed.). Reidl Publishing Co., 1982; 57–78.

182. Zienkiewicz OC. Basic formulation of static and dynamic behaviour of soil and other porous media. In Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Martins JB (ed.). D. Reidl Publishing Co, 1982; 39–57.

183. Taylor RL, Zienkiewicz OC. Mixed finite element solution of fluid flow problems. In Finite Element in Fluids, Chapter 1, Gallagher R, Norrie DH, Oden JT, Zienkiewicz OC (eds), vol. 4. Wiley: New York, 1982; 1–20.

184. Hinton E, Abdel-Rahman HH, Zienkiewicz OC. Present day state of the finite element method applied to concrete structures. FIP Congress Research Seminar, Stockholm, June 1982.

185. Zienkiewicz OC. Finite element methods for coupled problems in engineering. keynote lecture, Finite Element Conference, Shanghai. In Proceedings of the International Conference on FEM., Guangqian H, Cheung YK (eds). Science Press: Beijing 1982; 1–15.

186. Zienkiewicz OC, Leung KH, Hinton E. Earthquake response behaviour of soils with drainage. Invited lecture, International Conference on N.M. in Geomechanics, Edmonton. Balkhema Press: Rotterdam, 1982; 983–1002.

187. Nakazawa S, Pittman JFT, Zienkiewicz OC. A penalty finite element method for thermally coupled non-Newtonian flow with particular reference to balancing dissipation and the treatment of history dependent flows. International Symposium on Refined Modelling of Flows, Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, Paris, September 1982.

188. Zienkiewicz OC, Nakazawa S. The penalty function method and its applications to the numerical solution of boundary value problems. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 1982; 157–179.

189. Zienkiewicz OC, Bettess P. Fluid structure interaction. Proceedings of The Ocean Structural Dynamics Symposium, Oregon State University, September 1982; 65–102.

190. Kant T, Owen DRJ, Zienkiewicz OC. A Refined higher-order C0 plate bending element, Computers and Structures 1982; 177–183.

191. Zienkiewicz OC, Bettess P. CAE and civil engineering: computers, finite elements and the engineering profession. Electronics and Power 1983; 49–54.

192. Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor RL, Baynham JMW. Mixed and irreversible formulations in finite element analysis. In Hybrid and Mixed Finite Element Methods, Chapter 21, Atluri SN, Gallagher RH, Zienkiewicz OC (eds). Wiley: New York, 1983; 405–432.

193. Oñate E, Zienkiewicz OC. A viscous shell formulation for the analysis of thin sheet metal forming. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 1983; 305–335.

194. Zienkiewicz OC, Emson C, Bettess P. A novel boundary infinite element. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1983; 393–404.

195. Bicanic N, Zienkiewicz OC. Constitutive model for concrete under dynamic loading. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 1983; 689–710.

196. Zienkiewicz OC, Paul DK, Hinton E. Cavitation in fluid-structure response (with particular reference to dams under earthquake loading). Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 1983; 463–481.

197. Zienkiewicz OC, De JP, Gago SR, Kelly DW. The hierarchical concept in finite element analysis. Computers and Structures 1983; 53–65.

198. Kelly DW, De JP, Gago SR, Zienkiewicz OC, Babuska I. A-posteriori error analysis and adaptive processes in the finite element method: part I—Error analysis. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1983; 1593–1619.

199. Gago J, Kelly DW, Zienkiewicz OC, Babuska I. A-posteriori error analysis and adaptive processes in the finite element method: part II—adaptive mesh refinement. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1983; 1621–1656.

200. Zienkiewicz OC. Note on Maxwell's equation and the numerical solution of eddy current (and similar) problems. Eddy Current Seminar, Appleton Rutherford Laboratories, 1983; 80–88.

201. Zienkiewicz OC, Fejzo R, Bicanic N. Experience in analyzing plain concrete structures using a rate sensitive model with crack monitoring capabilities. Proceedings of the International Conference on Constitutive Laws for Engineering Materials, University of Arizona, Tucson, January 1983; 445–450.

202. Zienkiewicz OC. The generalized finite element method—state of the art and future directions. Anniversary Issue of Journal of Applied Mechanics and Soil Mechanics Engineering 1983; 1210–1217.

203. Zienkiewicz OC, Craig AW. Adaptive mesh refinement and a posteriori error analysis for the p-version of the finite element method. In Adaptive Computational Methods, for Partial Differential Equation, Babuska I et al. (eds). SIAM: Philadelphia, PA, 1983; 33–56.

204. Thompson EG, Pittman JFT, Zienkiewicz OC. Some integration techniques for the analysis of visco-elastic flows. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1983; 165–177.

205. Ricketts RE, Zienkiewicz OC. Shape optimization of continuum structures. In New directions in Optimal Structural Design, Chapter 6, Atrek E, Gallagher RH, Ragsdell KM, Zienkiewicz OC (eds). Wiley: New York, 1984; 139–166.

206. Zienkiewicz OC. Coupled problems and their numerical solution. In Numerical Methods in Coupled Systems, Chapter 1, Lewis RW, Bettess P, Hinton E (eds). Wiley: New York, 1984; 35–58.

207. Zienkiewicz OC. Flow formulation for numerical solution of forming processes. In Numerical Methods in Forming Processes, Chapter 1, Pittman JFT, Zienkiewicz OC, Wood RD, Alexander JM (eds). Wiley: New York, 1984; 1–44.

208. Zienkiewicz OC, Nakazawa S. On variational formulation and its modifications for numerical solution. Computers and Structures 1984; 303–313.

209. Zienkiewicz OC, Shiomi T. Dynamic behaviour of saturated porous media. The generalised Biot formulation and its numerical solution. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 1984; 71–96.

210. Zienkiewicz OC, Mroz Z. Generalized plasticity formulation and applications to geomechanics. In Mechanics of Engineering Materials, Chapter 33, Desai CS, Gallagher RH (eds). Wiley: New York, 1984; 655–680.

211. Zienkiewicz OC, Lohner R, Morgan K, Nakazawa S. Finite elements in fluid mechanics—a decade of progress. In Finite Elements in Fluids, Chapter 1, Gallagher RH, Oden JT, Zienkiewicz OC, Kewei T, Kawahara M (eds). Wiley: New York, 1984; 1–26.

212. Zienkiewicz OC, Craig AW. A-posteriori error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement in finite element method. In The Mathematical Basis of Finite Element Methods, Griffiths DF (ed.). Clarendon Press: Oxford, 1984.

213. Zienkiewcz OC, Leung KH. Dynamic response and liquefaction of earth dams. Discussions contributed American Society of Civil Engineers 1984.

214. Mroz Z, Zienkiewicz OC. Uniform formulation of constitutive equations for clays and sand. In Mechanics of Engineering Materials, Chapter 22, Desai CS, Gallagher RH (eds). Wiley: New York, 1984; 415–450.

215. Zienkiewicz OC. Iterative methods and hierarchical approaches: a prospect for the future of the finite element method. Paper for Special Issue Commemorating ASEA 100th Anniversary, Sweden, January 1984.

216. Lohner R, Morgan K, Zienkiewicz OC. The solution of non-linear hyperbolic equation systems by the finite element method. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids 1984; 1043–1063.

217. Lohner R, Morgan K, Zienkiewicz OC. Domain splitting for an explicit hyperbolic solver. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 1984; 313–329.

218. Zienkiewicz OC, Wood WL, Taylor RL. A unified set of single step algorithms, part I: general formulations and applications. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1984; 1529–1552.

219. Lohner R, Morgan K, Zienkiewicz OC. Adaptive grid refinement for the Euler and compressible Navier–Stokes equation. Proceedings of the International Conference on Accuracy Estimates and Adaptive Refinement in Finite Element Computations, Lisbon 1984; 189–202.

220. Vilotte JP, Madariaga R, Daignieres M, Zienkiewicz OC. The role of a heterogeneous inclusion during continental collision. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 1984; 236–259.

221. Simon BR, Zienkiewicz OC, Paul DK. An analytical solution for the transient response of saturated porous elastic solids. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 1984; 381–398.

222. Zienkiewicz OC, Pastor M. Teorias Clasica y Generalizada de la Plasticidad en Mecanica del Suelo. Anales de Ingenieria Mecanica, Ano, No. 1, 1984.

223. Zienkiewicz OC, Nakazawa S, Vilotte JP. Finite elements in forming processes. Advanced Technology of Plasticity, 1984; 1041–1050.

224. Zienkiewicz OC. Numerical modelling and geomechanics (Soil, rock and concrete). In Mechanics of Geomaterials, Chapter 21, Bazant Z (ed.). Wiley: New York, 1985; 471–499.

225. Zienkiewicz OC, Lohner R. Accelerated ‘relaxation’ or direct solution? Future prospects for finite element methods. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1985; 1–11.

226. Zienkiewicz OC, Lohner R, Morgan K, Peraire J. High speed compressible flow and other advection dominated problems of fluid mechanics. In Finite Elements in Fluids, Chapter 2, Gallagher RH, Carey GF, Oden JT, Zienkiewicz OC (eds). Wiley: New York 1985; 41–88.

227. Zielinski AP, Zienkiewicz OC. Generalized finite element analysis with T-complete boundary solution function. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1985; 509–528.

228. Zienkiewicz OC, XI-Kui L, Nakazawa S. Iterative solution of mixed problems and the stress recovery procedures. Communications in Applied Numerical methods 1985; 3–9.

229. Lohner R, Morgan K, Zienkiewicz OC. An adaptive finite element procedure for compressible high speed flows. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 1985; 441–465.

230. Zienkiewicz OC, Lohner R, Morgan K. High speed inviscid compressive flow by the finite element method. In The Mathematics of Finite Elements and Applications, Whiteman JR (ed.), vol. V. Academic Press: New York, 1985; 1–25.

231. Zienkiewicz OC, Vilotte JP, Toyoshima S, Nakazawa S. Iterative method for constrained and mixed approximation. An inexpensive improvement of F.E.M. performance. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 1985; 3–29.

232. Zienkiewicz OC, Bando K, Bettess P, Emson C, Chiam TC. Mapped infinite elements for exterior wave problems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1985; 1229–1251.

233. Zienkiewicz OC, Leung KH, Pastor M. Simple model for transient soil loading in earthquake analysis, Part. I—basic model and its application. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 1985; 453–476.

234. Pastor M, Zienkiewicz OC, Leung KH. Simple model for transient soil loading in earthquake analysis: part II—non-associative models for sands. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 1985; 477–498.

235. Craig AW. Zhu JZ, Zienkiewicz OC. A-posteriori error estimation, adaptive mesh refinement and multigrid methods using hierarchical finite element bases. In The Mathematics of Finite Elements and Applications, Whiteman JR (ed.), vol. V, Academic Press: New York, 1985; 587–594.

236. Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor RL. Coupled problems—a simple time stepping procedure. Communications in Applied Numerical Methods 1985; 233–239.

237. Zienkiewicz OC. Transient analysis—some recent developments. Proceedings of the International Conference on Numerical Methods in Engineering—Theory and Applications (NUMETA85). Balkhema Press: Swansea, 7–11 January 1985; 3–8.

238. Craig AW, Zienkiewicz OC. A multigrid algorithm using a hierarchical finite element basis. In Multigrid Methods for Integral and Differential Equations, Paddon DJ, Holstein H (eds). Clarendon Press: Oxford, 1985; 301–312.

239. Taylor RL, Zienkiewicz OC. A note on the ‘order of approximation’. International Journals for Solids and Structures 1985; 793–798.

240. Simon BR, Wu JS-S, Carlton MW, Kazarian LE, France EP, Evans JH, Zienkiewicz OC. Poroelastic dynamic structural models of rhesus spinal motion segments. Spine 1985; (6): 494–507.

241. Katona MG, Zienkiewicz OC. A unified set of single step algorithms—part 3: the beta-m method, a generalization of the Newmark scheme. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1985; 1345–1359.

242. Zienkiewicz OC, Wood RD, Mattiasson K, Honnor ME. Viscous flow and solid mechanics approaches to the analysis of thin sheet forming. Proceedings of the 12th Automotive Materials Symposium, Ann Arbor, MI, April, 1985; 121–141.

243. Lohner R, Morgan K, Peraire J, Zienkiewicz OC. Finite element methods for high speed flows. AIAA Paper, 85-1531-CP, 1985.

244. Zienkiewicz OC. The coupled problems of soil-pore fluid-external fluid interaction—basis for a general geomechanics code. Proceedings of the 5th ICONMIG Conference, Nagoya, Japan, Balkema Press: Rotterdam, 1985; 1731–1740.

245. Peraire J, Zienkiewicz OC, Morgan K. Shallow water problems: a general explicit formulation. NUMETA 1985 (also in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1986; 547–574).

246. Zienkiewicz OC, Morgan K, Peraire J, Vahdati M, Lohner R. Finite elements for compressible gas flow and similar systems. International Conference on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering, Versailles, December 1985.

247. Zienkiewicz OC. The finite element method: from intuition to generality. Applied Mechanics Reviews 1985; 249–256. Addendum.

248. Xi Kui L, Qiang Liu G, Zienkiewicz OC. A generalized displacement method for the finite element analysis of thin shells. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1985; 2145–2155.

249. Zienkiewicz OC, Clough RW, Seed HB. Earthquake analysis procedures for concrete and earth dams—state of the art. ICOLD Bulletin 32, ICOLD Committee for the Analysis and Design of Dams, 1986.

250. Taylor RL, Zienkiewicz OC, Simo JC, Chan AHC. The patch test—a condition for assessing finite element convergence. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1986; 39–62.

251. Simon BR, Wu JS-S, Zienkiewicz OC, Paul DK. Evaluation of finite element methods for the prediction of the dynamic response of saturated porous media. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 1986; 461–482.

252. Simon BR, Wu JS-S, Zienkiewicz OC. Higher order, mixed and Hermitean finite element procedures for dynamic analysis of saturated porous media. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 1986; 483–499.

253. Zienkiewicz OC, Craig AW. Adaptive refinement, error estimates, Multigrid solution, and hierarchic finite element method concepts. In Accuracy Estimates and Adaptive Refinements in Finite Element Computations, Chapter 2, Babuska I, Zienkiewicz OC, Gago J, de A. Oliveira ER (eds). Wiley: New York, 1986; 25–60.

254. Lohner R, Morgan K, Zienkiewicz OC. Adaptive grid refinement for the Euler and compressible Navier–Stokes equations. In Accuracy Estimates and Adaptive Refinements in Finite Element Computations, Chapter 15, Babuska I, Zienkiewicz OC, Gago J, de A. Oliveira ER (eds). Wiley: New York, 1986; 281–298.

255. Zienkiewicz OC, Craig AW, Zhu JZ, Gallagher RH. Adaptive analysis refinement and shape optimization, some new possibilities. In The Optimum Shape—Automated Structural Design, Bennett JA, Botkin ME (eds). General Motors Research Labs. Plenum Press: New York, London, 1986; 3–23.

256. Zienkiewicz OC, Qu S, Taylor RL, Nakazawa S. The patch test for mixed formulation. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1986; 1873–1883.

257. Lohner R, Morgan K, Peraire J, Zienkiewicz OC, Kong L. Finite element methods for compressible flow. In ICFD Conference on Numerical Methods in Fluid Dynamics II, Morton KW, Baines MJ (eds). Clarendon Press: Oxford, 1986; 27–53.

258. Zienkiewicz OC, Xi-Kui L, Nakazawa S. Dynamic transient analysis by a mixed iterative method. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1986; 1343–1353.

259. Gavriushin SS, Zienkiewicz OC. A simple algorithm for the analysis of axisymmetric thin shells metal forming. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1986; 1179–1194.

260. Pastor M, Zienkiewicz OC. A generalized plasticity, hierarchical model for sand under monotonic and cyclic loading. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Numerical Models in Geomechanics, Ghent, Pande GN, Van Impe WF (ed.). M. Jackson & Son: England, 1986; 131–150.

261. Zhang WC, Wood RD, Zienkiewicz OC. Superplastic forming analysis using a finite element viscous flow formulation. Aluminium Technology '86, Proceedings, Book 4, Session 2, London, 1986.

262. Peraire J, Vahdati M, Morgan K, Zienkiewicz OC. Adaptive remeshing for compressible flow computations. Journal of Computational Physics 1986; (2):449–466.

263. Zienkiewicz OC, Liu YC, Zhu JZ, Toyoshima S. Flow formulation for numerical solution of forming processes II—some new directions. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Numerical Methods in Industrial Forming Processes, Numiform 86, Gothenburg, Mattiasson K, Samuelsson A, Wood RD, Zienkiewicz OC (eds). Balkema AA: Rotterdam, 25–29 August 1986.

264. Zienkiewicz OC, Morgan K, Peraire J, Zhu JZ. Some expanding horizons for computational mechanics, error estimates, mesh generation and hyperbolic problems. In Computational Mechanics—Advances and Trends, Noor AK (ed.). ASME, AMD: New York, 1986.

265. Zienkiewicz OC, Pastor M. Modelos Sencillos Para Comportamiento de Suelos Bajo Carga Monotona y Ciclica. In Aplicaciones del Metodo de Los Elementos Finitos en Ingenieria, Alonso E, Gens A, Oñate E (eds). Ingenieria Geotecnica, 1986; 245–257.

266. Vilotte JP, Madariaga R, Daignieres M, Zienkiewicz OC. Numerical study of continental collision: influence of buoyancy forces and an initial stiffness. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 1986; 2:279–310.

267. Pastor M, Zienkiewicz OC. Una teoria la plasticidad sin superficie de fluencia: aplicacion a geomateriales, Spanish Congress of Mechanical Engineering, Murcia, December 1986.

268. Pietruszcak S, Mroz Z, Zienkiewicz OC. Application of an anisotropic hardening rule in the numerical analysis of a footing. Studia Geotechnica et Mechanica 1986; VIII(1):3–24.

269. Zienkiewicz OC. The finite element method: from intuition to generality. Applied Mechanics Reviews, 249–256, 1970. Update—Applied Mechanics Reviews 1986; 127–141.

270. Zienkiewicz OC, Wood WL. Transient response analysis. In Finite Element Handbook, Chapter 8, Kardestuncer H, Norrie D (eds). McGraw-Hill: New York, 1987; 2.275–2.314.

271. Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ. A simple error estimator and adaptive procedure for practical engineering analysis. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1987; 337–357.

272. Zienkiewicz OC, Pastor M. A general model for sand/soil behaviour. Proceedings, 2nd International Conference on Constitutive Laws for Engineering Materials: Theory and Applications, Tucson, January 1987; 261–273.

273. Lee JHW, Peraire J, Zienkiewicz OC. The characteristic-Galerkin method for advection dominated problems—an assessment. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 1987; 359–369.

274. Peraire J, Morgan K, Zienkiewicz OC. Convection dominated problems. Numerical Methods for Compressible Flows—Finite Difference, Element and Volume Techniques, ASME, AMD, 1987; 129–147.

275. Zienkiewicz OC, Lefebvre D. Three-field mixed approximation and the plate bending problem. Communications in Applied Numerical Methods 1987; 301–309.

276. Rank E, Zienkiewicz OC. A simple error estimator in the finite element method. Communications in Applied Numerical Methods 1987; 243–50.

277. Peraire J, Morgan K, Peiro J, Zienkiewicz OC. The use of adaptive finite element techniques for Cfd. Reading University Conference, 1987.

278. Zienkiewicz OC, Chan AHC, Pastor M, Shiomi T. Computational approach to soil dynamics. In Soil Dynamics and Liquefaction, Developments in Geotechnical Engineering, Cazmak AS (ed.). Elsevier: Amsterdam, 1987; 3–17.

279. Zienkiewicz OC. Computer prediction in engineering—the first 25 years of the finite element methods at Swansea, University of Wales Review. Science and Technology 1987; (2):5–19. Autumn.

280. Zienkiewicz OC. Computer prediction in engineering. IAFSA, Philips, Eindhoven (eds), Holland, 1987.

281. Pastor M, Zienkiewicz. Modeling of liquefaction under monotonic and cyclic loading conditions. Proceedings of the Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Dublin, 1987.

282. Peraire J, Morgan K, Peiro J, Zienkiewicz OC. An adaptive finite element method for high speed flows. AIAA 25th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 1987.

283. Zhu JZ, Zienkiewicz OC, Craig AW. Adaptive techniques in finite element analysis. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Numerical Methods in Engineering: Theory and Applications, Numeta 87, vol. I, Pande GN, Middleton J (eds). Martinus Nijhoff Publ., 1987. Paper S3/1.

284. Pastor M, Zienkiewicz OC, Chan AHC. A generalized plasticity continuous loading model for geomaterials. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Numerical Methods in Engineering: Theory and Applications, Numeta 87, Pande GN, Middleton J (eds), vol. II. Martinus Nijhoff Publ., 1987. Paper C31/1,

285. Zienkiewicz OC, Paul DK, Chan AHC. Numerical solution for the total response of saturated porous media leading to liquefaction and subsequent consolidation. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Numerical Methods in Engineering: Theory and Applications, Numeta 87, Pande GN, Middleton J (eds), vol. II. Martinus Nijhoff Publ. 1987. Paper T51/1.

286. Zienkiewicz OC, Bicanic N, Shen FQ. Single step averaging generalised Smith transmitting boundary in computational dynamics. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Numerical Methods in Engineering: Theory and Applications, Numeta 87, Pande GN, Middleton J (eds), vol. II. Martinus Nijhoff Publ., 1987. Paper T49/1.

287. Bonet J, Wood RD, Zienkiewicz OC. Finite element analysis of thin sheet superplastic forming. Proceedings of the Mathematical Models for Metals and Materials Applications, Institute of Metals, October 1987; 2.1–2.7.

288. Zienkiewicz OC. The challenge of computational Mechanics. Braunschweigische Wissenschaftliche Gesellschalt, Jahrbuch, 1987; 247–260.

289. Zienkiewicz OC, Paul DK, Pastor M, Shiomi T. Computational modelling for soil-pore–fluid interaction in dynamic or static state. Symposium on Centrifuge Dynamic Model Test Data and the Evaluation of Numerical Modelling, Cambridge University, July 1987.

290. Zhu JZ, Li RF, Yan LB, Zienkiewicz OC. Adaptive method for engineering analysis with application to contact problems. Developments in Mechanics, Proceedings of the 20th Midwestern Mechanics Conference, vol. a, U.S.A., 1987.

291. Peraire J, Peiro J, Formaggia L, Morgan K, Zienkiewicz OC. Finite element Euler computations in 3-dimensions. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1987; 2135–2159.

292. Zienkiewicz OC, Lefebvre D. Mixed methods for F.E.M. and the patch test: some recent developments. Analyse Mathematique et Applications, Contributions en l'honneur de J.L. Lions. Gauthier-Villars: Paris, 1988; 473–500.

293. Zienkiewicz OC, Liu YC, Huang GC. An error estimate and adaptive refinement method for extrusion and other forming problems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1988; 23–42.

294. Zienkiewicz OC. Computational mechanics and the engineer: the finite element method and the Swansea connection. University Computing 1988; 236–191.

295. Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ, Liu YC, Morgan K, Peraire J. Error estimates and adaptivity: from elasticity to high speed compressible flow. In The Mathematics of Finite Elements and Applications, Whiteman JR (ed.), vol. VI. Academic Press: New York, 1988; 483–513.

296. Zienkiewicz OC. Dam design criteria. The philosophy of their selection. ICOLD Bulletin 61 1988.

297. Zienkiewicz OC, Lefebvre D. A robust triangular plate bending element of the Reissner–Mindlin type. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1988; 1169–1184.

298. Chan AHC, Zienkiewicz OC, Pastor M. Transformation of incremental plasticity relation from defining space to general cartesian stress space. Communications in Applied Numerical Methods 1988; 577–580.

299. Zienkiewicz OC, Paul DK, Chan AHC. Unconditionally stable staggered solution procedure for soil-pore fluid interaction problems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1988; 1039–1055.

300. Zhu JZ, Zienkiewicz OC. Adaptive techniques in the finite element method. Communications in Applied Numerical Methods 1988; 197–204.

301. Pastor M, Zienkiewicz OC, Chan AHC. Generalized plasticity model for three-dimensionsal sand behaviour. In Proceedings of the Constitutive Equations for Granular Non-cohesive Soils, Saada, Bianchini (eds). Balkema: Rotterdam, 1988; 535–544.

302. Zienkiewicz OC, Pastor M, Chan AHC. Simple models for soil behaviour and applications to problems of soil liquefaction. In Numerical Models in Geomechanics, Innsbruck, Swoboda G (ed.). Balkema, 1988; 169–180.

303. Peraire J, Peiro J, Formaggia L, Morgan K, Zienkiewicz OC. Finite element Euler computations in three dimensions. AIAA 26th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, U.S.A., January 1988. AIAA-87-0032.

304. Zienkiewicz OC, Chan AHC. Coupled problems and their numerical solution. In Advances in Computational Nonlinear Mechanics, Doltsinis St (ed.), vol. I. Springer: Berlin, 1988; 140–176.

305. Zienkiewicz OC, Bicanic N, Shen FQ. Earthquake input definition and the transmitting boundary conditions. In Proceedings of the Advances in Computational Nonlinear Mechanics, Doltsinis St (eds), vol. I. Springer: Berlin, 1988; 109–138.

306. Bonet J, Wood RD, Zienkiewicz OC. Time stepping schemes for the numerical analysis of superplastic forming of thin sheet. In Modelling of Metal Forming Processes, Chenot JL, Oñate E (eds). Kluwer Academic Publ.: Dordrecht, 1988; 179–186.

307. Huang GC, Liu YC, Zienkiewicz OC. Error control, mesh updating schemes and automatic adaptive remeshing for finite element analysis of unsteady extrusion processes. In Modelling of Metal Forming Processes, Chenot JL, Oñate E (eds). Kluwer Academic Publ.: Dordrecht, 1988; 75–83.

308. Zienkiewicz OC, Morgan K, Peraire J, Peiro J, Formaggia L. Finite elements in fluid mechanics. Compressible flow, shallow water equations and transport. Recent Developments in Computational Fluid Dynamics, Amd 95, Asme Conference, December 1988; 193–207.

309. Zienkiewicz OC, Finite elements tomorrow. Robustness—reliability—range. IKOSS Conference, Baden, November 1988.

310. Darve F, Pastor M, Zienkiewicz OC. Benchmarks for geotechnical engineers. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1988; 2:59–68.

311. Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ, Gong NG. Effective and practical h-p version adaptive analysis procedures for the finite element method. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1989; 879–891.

312. Ainsworth M, Zhu JZ, Craig A, Zienkiewicz OC. Analysis of the Zienkiewicz–Zhu a-posteriori error estimator in the finite element method. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1989; 2161–2174.

313. Zienkiewicz OC, Liu YC, Huang GC. Error estimates and convergence rates for various incompressible elements. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1989; 2191–2202.

314. Zienkiewicz OC, Huang GC. Adaptive modelling of transient coupled metal forming processes. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Numerical Methods in Industrial Forming Processes, Thompson EG, Wood RD, Zienkiewicz OC, Samuelsson A (eds), 1989; 3–10.

315. Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ, Craig AW, Ainsworth M. Simple and practical error estimation and adaptivity—h and h-p version procedures. In Adaptive Methods for Partial Differential Equations, Chapter 8, Flaherty JE, et al. (eds). SIAM: Philadelphia, PA, 1989; 100–114.

316. Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ. Error estimates and adaptive refinement for plate bending problems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1989; 2839–3854.

317. Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ. Error estimates and adaptivity: the essential ingredients of engineering FEM analysis, Benchmark. NAFEMS, July 1989; 9–15.

318. Zienkiewicz OC. Mixed methods revisited. International Conference on Innovative Numerical Methods, Lausanne, 1989.

319. Cheung YK, Jin WG, Zienkiewicz OC. Direct solution procedure for solution of harmonic problems using complete, non-singular, Trefftz functions. Communications in Applied Numerical Methods 1989; 159–169.

320. Craig AW, Ainsworth M, Zhu JZ, Zienkiewicz OC. h/p version error estimator and adaptive procedures from theory to practice. Engineering with Computers 1989; 221–234.

321. Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor RL, Papadopoulos P, Oñate E. Plate bending elements with discrete constraints. A new triangular element. Computers and Structures 1990; 505–522.

322. Pastor M, Zienkiewicz OC, Chan AHC. Generalised plasticity and the modelling of soil behaviour. Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 1990; 151–190.

323. Li X, Zienkiewicz OC, Xie YM. A numerical model for immiscible two-phase fluid flow in porous medium and its time domain solution. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1990; 1195–2012.

324. Zienkiewicz OC, Szmelter J, Peraire J. Compressible and incompressible flow: an algorithm for all seasons. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 1990; 105–121.

325. Oñate E, Taylor RL, Zienkiewicz OC. Discretization methods in structural mechanics. In Iutam/Iacm Symposium, Kuhn G, Mang HA (eds). Springer: Vienna, 1990; 169–180.

326. Zienkiewicz OC, Huang GC, Liu YC. Adaptive FEM computation of forming processes—application to porous and nonporous materials. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1990; 1527–1554.

327. Zienkiewicz OC, Huang GC. A note on localisation phenomena and adaptive FE analysis in forming processes. Communications in Applied Numerical Methods 1990; 71–76.

328. Zienkiewicz OC, Chan AHC, Pastor M, Paul DK, Shiomi T. Static and dynamic behaviour of geomaterials—a rational approach to quantitative solutions, part I: fully saturated problems. Proceedings of the Royal Society 1990; A429:285–309.

329. Zienkiewicz OC, Xie YM, Schrefler BA. Ladesma A, Bicanic N. Static and dynamic behaviour of geomaterials—a rational approach to quantitative solutions, part II, semi saturated problems. Proceedings of the Royal Society 1990; A429:311–321.

330. Bottura L, Zienkiewicz OC. Experiments on iterative solution for the semi-implicit characteristic-Galerkin algorithm. Communications in Applied Numerical Methods 1990; 387–393.

331. Zhu JZ, Zienkiewicz OC. Superconvergence recovery technique and a-posteriori error estimators. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1990; 1321–1339.

332. Zhu JZ, Zienkiewicz OC. Further numerical tests of residual type of a-posteriori error estimators. Numeta '90, Elsevier Applied Science. 1990; 1030–1043.

333. Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ. The three R's of engineering analysis and error estimation and adaptivity. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 1990; 95–113.

334. Wu J, Zhu JZ, Szmelter J, Zienkiewicz OC. Error estimation and adaptivity in Navier–Stokes incompressible flows. Computational Mechanics 1990; 259–270.

335. Schrefler BA, Simoni L, Li XK, Zienkiewicz OC. Mechanics of partially saturated porous media. In Numerical Methods and Constitutive Modelling in Geomechanics. CISM Lecture Notes, Desai CS, Gioda G (eds). Springer, Wien, 1990; 1–41.

336. Jin WG, Cheung YK, Zienkiewicz OC. Applications of the Trefftz method in plate elasticity problems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1990; 1147–1161.

337. Pastor M, Peraire J, Zienkiewicz OC. Adaptive remeshing for shear band localization problems. Archive of Applied Mechanics 1991; 30–39.

338. Zienkiewicz OC. Where now finite elements? In The Mathematics of Finite Elements and Application, Whiteman J (ed.), vol. VII. Academic Press: New York, 1991; 1–11.

339. Zienkiewicz OC. Finite elements and computational fluid mechanics. Metodos Numericos en Ingenieria, Semni Congress, Gran Canaria 1991; 56–61.

340. Zienkiewicz OC. Explicit (or semi explicit) general algorithm for compressible and incompressible flows with equal finite element interpolation. Report 90.5, Department of Structural Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology, 1991; 1–18.

341. Zienkiewicz OC, Pastor M, Xie YM. Constitutive modelling of soils and computation of earthquake damage and liquefaction. Proceedings, 2nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics, St. Louis, MO, 1991; 1743–1752.

342. Zhu JZ, Zienkiewicz OC, Hinton E, Wu J. A new approach to the development of automatic quadrilateral mesh generation. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1991; 849–866.

343. Zienkiewicz OC, Oñate E. Finite volumes vs finite elements. Is there really a choice? In Nonlinear Computational Mechanics. State of the Art, Wriggers P, Wagner W (eds). Springer: Berlin, 1991; 240–254.

344. Zienkiewicz OC, Schrefler BA, Simoni L, Xie YM, Zhan XY. Two or three phase behaviour in soil dynamics. In Nonlinear Computational Mechanics; State of the Art Wriggers P, Wagner W (eds). Springer: Berlin, 1991; 103–136.

345. Zienkiewicz OC, Wu J, Incompressibility without tears! How to avoid restrictions of mixed formulation. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1991; 1184–1303.

346. Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ. Adaptivity and mesh generation. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1991; 783–810.

347. Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ. The state of the art in adaptivity and mesh generation. Ansys Conference Proceedings, Pittsburgh, 1991; 1–36.

348. Zhu JZ, Hinton E, Zienkiewicz OC. Adaptive finite element analysis with quadrilaterals. Computers and Structures 1991; 1097–1104.

349. Zienkiewicz OC, Xie YM. A simple error estimator and adaptive time stepping procedure for dynamic analysis. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 1991; 871–887.

350. Zienkiewicz OC. Adaptivity, fluids and localization. The challenge to computational mechanics. Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering 1991; 135–145. CANCAM 1991.

351. Zienkiewicz OC, Xie YM. Analysis of the lower San Fernando dam failure under earthquake. Dam Engineering 1991; 307–322.

352. Zienkiewicz OC, Pastor M, Chan AHC, Xie YM. Computational approaches to the dynamics and statics of saturated and unsaturated soils. In Advanced Geotechnical Analysis, Chapter 1, Banerjee PK, Butterfield R (eds). Elsevier: Amsterdam, 1991; 1–45.

353. Cheung YK, Jin WG, Zienkiewicz OC. Solution of Helmholz equation by the Trefftz method. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1991; 63–78.

354. Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ. Accuracy and adaptivity in FE analysis. The changing face of practical computation. Proceedings of Asian Pacific Conference Computational Mechanics, Hong Kong. Balkhema Press: Rotterdam, 1991; 3–12.

355. Zienkiewicz OC, Wu J. Shallow water equations: recent developments of solution algorithms. Proceedings of International Symposium on Environmental Hydraulics, Hong Kong. Balkhema Press: Rotterdam, 1991; 703–710.

356. Wu J, Zienkiewicz OC. A new semi-implicit or explicit algorithm for shallow water equations. Proceedings of International Symposium on Environmental Hydraulics, Hong Kong. Balkhema Press: Rotterdam, 1991; 971–976.

357. Chen KW, Lee JHW, Zienkiewicz OC. Tidal transport calculations with the characteristic Galerkin method. In Environmental Hydraulics, Lee JHW, Cheung YK (eds). Balkhema Press: Rotterdam, 1991; 1029–1034.

358. Shimura M, Zienkiewicz OC. Interaction analysis between structure and fluid flow using the direct Laplacian method. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computing in Civil and Building Engineering, Tokyo, Japan, 1991; 267–274.

359. Burkley VJ, Bruch JC, Zienkiewicz OC. Adaptive methods in solving a free surface seepage problem. In Mathematics and Finite Element Applications, Whiteman J (ed.), vol. VII, 1991; 101–110.

360. Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ. Automatic adaptive analysis. The new look of finite elements. Xii Cedya, II Congreso de Matematica Aplicada, Oviedo, Gijon, 1991.

361. Bicanic N, Selman A. Xie YM, Pankaj, Zienkiewicz OC. On mesh dependence of failure mode predictions for dams. Dam Fracture, Proceedings of the International Conference, Boulder, CO, 1991; 3–20.

362. Zienkiewicz OC. The finite element method: its genesis and future. (Gold Medal Address, Institute of Structural Engineers, 27th February) The Structural Engineer 1992; 355–360.

363. Li X, Zienkiewicz OC. Multiphase flow in deforming porous media and finite element solutions. Computers and Structures 1992; 211–227.

364. Peraire J, Peiro J, Morgan K, Hassan O, Zienkiewicz OC. Aplicaciones de la Supercomputacion en Aerodinamica. Revista Internacional de M, todos Num, ricos para C lculo y Diseo en Ingenieria 1992; 3:215–233.

365. Zienkiewicz OC. Computational mechanics today (Presidential Address, World Congress Computational Mechanics II). International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1992; 9–33.

366. Oñate E, Zienkiewicz OC, Suarez B, Taylor RL. A general methodology for deriving shear constrained Reissner Mindlin plate elements. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1992; 345–367.

367. Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ. Superconvergent patch recovery and a posteriori error estimation in the finite element method, part I: a general superconvergent recovery technique. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1992; 1331–1364.

368. Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ. Superconvergent patch recovery and a posteriori error estimation in the finite element method, part II. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1992; 1365–1382.

369. Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ. Superconvergent patch recovery (SPR) and adaptive finite element refinement. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 1992; 207–224.

370. Zienkiewicz OC, Wu J. A general explicit or semi-explicit algorithm for compressible and incompressible flows. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1992; 457–479.

371. Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ. Automatic adaptive analysis: a new look at finite elements. In New Advances in Computational Structures Mechanics, Ladeveze P, Zienkiewicz OC (eds). Elsevier Science Pub.: Amsterdam, 1992; 161–176.

372. Bottura L, Zienkiewicz OC. Quench analysis of large superconducting magnets. Part I: model description, Cryogenics 1992; 7:659–667.

373. Bottura L, Zienkiewicz OC. Quench analysis of large superconducting magnets. Part ll: model validation and application. Cryogenics 1992; 8:719–728.

374. Pastor M, Rubio C, Mira P, Vilotte JP, Peraire J, Zienkiewicz OC. Numerical analysis of localization. In Numerical Models in Geomechanics, Pande GN, Pietruszczak S (eds). Balkhema: Rotterdam, 1992; 339–348.

375. Pastor M, Zienkiewicz OC, Xu G-D. Constitutive modelling of sand behaviour. In Numerical Analysis of Localization, Numerical Models in Geomechanics, Pande GN, Pietruszczak S (eds). Balkhema: Rotterdam, 1992; 15–29.

376. Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ. Mesh regeneration and automatic adaptive analysis. Computational Methods in Applied Sciences, Ch Hirsch (ed.). Elsevier Scientific publ: Amsterdam, 1992; 13–24.

377. Zienkiewicz OC, Pastor M. Computational mechanics and earthquake engineering. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Earthquake Engineering 1992. (Publ. 1994).

378. Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ. Advances in adaptive accuracy control. In Numerical Methods in Engineering and Applied Sciences, Alser H et al. (eds), Chile. CIMNE: Barcelona, 1992; 96–109.

379. Pastor M, Zienkiewicz OC, Dou XG. Soil liquefaction and failure under earthquake loading. Earthquake Engineering, Tenth World Conference. Balkema: Rotterdam, 1992; 2535–2541.

380. Zhu JZ, Hinton E, Zienkiewicz OC. Mesh enrichment versus mesh regeneration using quadrilateral elements. Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering 1993; 547–554.

381. Zienkiewicz OC, Wu J. A new semi-implicit or explicit algorithm for shallow water equation. Mathematical Modelling and Science Computing 1993; 31–49.

382. Jin WG, Cheung YK, Zienkiewicz OC. Trefftz method for Kirchhoff plate bending problems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1993; 765–781.

383. Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ, Wu J. Superconvergent recovery techniques—some further tests. Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering 1993; 251–258.

384. Zienkiewicz OC, Huang M, Wu J, Wu S. A new algorithm for coupled soil-pore fluid problem. Shock and Vibration 1993; 3–14.

385. Zienkiewicz OC, Xu Z, Zeng LF, Samuelsson A, Wiberg E. linked interpolation for Reissner–Mindlin plate elements. Part I: a simple quadrilateral. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1993; 3043–3056.

386. Zienkiewicz OC. Ten years of progress in engineering computations: some landmarks in the development of the finite element method. Proceedings of the 2nd U.S. National Congress on Computational Mechanics, Washington, DC, 1993; 1–2.

387. Zienkiewicz OC, Valliapan S. Proceedings of the Seminar on Impact of Computational Mechanics in Engineering Problems, Balkema Press, 1993; 3–12.

388. Zienkiewicz OC, Huang M, Pastor M. Numerical predictions for variable centrifuge modes. VELACS (Verification of Numerical Procedures for Analysis of Soil Liquefacation), vol. I. Balkema Press: Rotterdam, 1993. Model No. 1:251–274; No. 2:428–434; No. 3:583–594; No. 4:675–680; No. 5:731–736; No. 6:777–782; No. 7:873–880; No. 11;997–1006.

389. Shiomi T, Shigena Y, Zienkiewicz OC. Numerical predictions for various centrifuge modes. VELACS (Verification of Numerical Procedures for Analysis of Soil Liquefacation), vol. I. Balkema Press: Rotterdam. Model No. 1, 213-220; No. 2, 381-394; No. 11, 1993; 987-996; No. 12, 1067–1074.

390. Zienkiewicz OC, Pastor M, Huang M. Numerical modelling of soil liquefaction and similar phenomena in earthquake engineering. VELACS, vol. II. Balkema Press: Rotterdam, 1993.

391. Oñate E, Cervera M, Zienkiewicz OC. A finite volume format for structural mechanics. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1994; 181–201.

392. Zienkiewicz OC, Huang M. Computational soil dynamics—a new algorithm for drained and undrained conditions. In International Conference on Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics, Siriwardane HJ, Zaman MM (eds). Balkema: Rotterdam, 1994; 47–59.

393. Bottura L, Zienkiewicz OC. Saruman—an integrated procedure for the analysis of quench in superconducting magnets. IEEE Transaction Magnetics 1994; 1978–1991.

394. Zienkiewicz OC, Wu J. Automatic directional refinement in adaptive analysis of compressible flows. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1994; 2189–2210.

395. Zienkiewicz OC, Gallagher RH, Lewis RW. International journal for numerical methods in engineering: the first 25 years and the future. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1994; 2151–2158.

396. Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ. Letters to the Editor, The SPR recovery and boundaries. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1994; 3195–3201.

397. Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor RL. Distinguished researcher and friend. In Recent Developments in Finite Element Analysis, Hughes TJR, OÑate E, Zienkiewicz OC (eds). CIMNE: Barcelona, Spain, 1994; 1–17.

398. Zienkiewicz OC, Codina R. Search for a general fluid mechanics algorithm. In Frontiers of Computational Fluid Dynamics, Caughey DA, Hafez MM (eds). Wiley: New York, 1994; 101–113.

399. Zienkiewicz OC. The saga of plates and shells—a continuing finite element challenge. In Finite Elements to the Troll Platform, Bell K (ed.), Tech, University of Trondheim, 1994; 101–113.

400. Taylor RL, Auricchio F, Zienkiewicz OC. Computational mechanics from A to Z. In Finite Elements to the Troll Platform, Bell K (ed.), Tech. University of Trondheim, 1994; 115–125.

401. Zienkiewicz OC, Huang M, Pastor M. Geotechnical engineering computation: computation and verification of dynamic behaviour and liquefaction. In Y. K. Cheung Symposium, Lee PKK, Tham LG (eds), University of Hong Kong, 1994; 88–165.

402. Zienkiewicz OC. Origins, milestones and directions of the finite element method. Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering, State of the Art Reviews 1995; 1–48.

403. Meroi EA, Schrefler BA, Zienkiewicz OC. Large strain static and dynamic semisaturated soil behaviour. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 1995; 81–106.

404. Zienkiewicz OC, Codina R. A general algorithm for compressible and incompressible flow. Part I: the split, characteristic based scheme. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids 1995; 869–885.

405. Zienkiewicz OC, Morgan K, Satya Sai BVK, Codina R, Vasquez M. A general algorithm for compressible and incompressible flow. Part II: tests on the explicit form. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids 1995; 887–913.

406. Zienkiewicz OC. Finite elements in fluid mechanics—search for an optimal approach. World Congress Computational Mechanics, Plenary Lecture, Tokyo, 1995.

407. Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ. Superconvergence and the superconvergent patch recovery. Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 1995; 11–23.

408. Zienkiewicz OC, Ortiz P. A split-characteristic based finite element model for the shallow water equations. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids 1995; 1061–1080.

409. Ortiz P, Zienkiewicz OC. Modelizacion por Elementos Finitos en Hidr ulica e hidrodin mica Costera. Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas, Cedex, Madrid (Translation), 1995.

410. Zienkiewicz OC, Huang M, Pastor M. Localization problems in plasticity using finite elements with adaptive remeshing. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 1995; 127–148.

411. Pastor M, Rubio C, Mira P, Zienkiewicz OC, Vilotte JP. Shear band computations: influence of mesh alignment. In Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics, Sinwardane, Zaman (eds). Balkema, 1995; 2681–2687.

412. Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ. Error estimation and adaptivity: achievements of the last decade. In Computational Mechanics 95, Atluri SN, Yagawa C, Cruse TA (eds). Springer: Berlin, 1995; 8–14.

413. Zienkiewicz OC, Pastor M, Huang M. Softening, localisation and adaptive remeshing. Capture of discontinuous solutions. Computational Mechanics. Springer: Berlin, 1995; 98–106.

414. O.C. Zienkiewicz, B. Boroomand. Adaptive mesh updating in plasticity problems and an improved solution process using SPR. A preliminary study. Advances in Finite Element Technology, N E Wiberg (ed.). CIMNE: Barcelona, 1995; 1–21.

415. Zienkiewicz OC. A new algorithm for fluid mechanics. Compressible and incompressible behaviour. Proceedings of the International Conference on Finite Elements in Fluids—New Trends and Applications, Venezia, October 1995; 49–55.

416. Codina R, Vázquez M, Zienkiewicz OC. A fractional step method for compressible flows: boundary conditions and incompressible limit. Proceedings of the International Conference on Finite Elements in Fluids—New Trends and Applications, Venezia, October 1995; 409–418.

417. Ortiz P, Zienkiewicz OC. Tide and bore propagation in the Severn Estuary by a new fluid algorithm. Proceedings of the International Conference on Finite Elements in Fluids—New Trends and Applications, Venezia, October 1995; 1543–1552.

418. Oñate E, Idelsohn S, Fischer T, Zienkiewicz OC. A finite point method for analysis of fluid flow problems. Proceedings of the International Conference on Finite Elements in Fluids—New Trends and Applications, Venezia, October 1995; 25–36.

419. Zienkiewicz OC. Origins, milestones and directions of the finite element method—apersonal view. In Handbook of Numerical Analysis, Ciarlet PG, Lions JL (eds), vol. IV. North-Holland: Amsterdam, 1996; 3–65.

420. Bolzon G, Schrefler BA, Zienkiewicz OC. Elastoplastic soil constitutive laws generalized to semisaturated states. Geotechnique 1996; 279–289.

421. Zienkiewicz OC, Ortiz P. An improved finite element model for shallow water problems. In Finite Element Modeling of Environmental Problems, Carey GF (ed.). Wiley: New York, 1996; 61–84.

422. Zienkiewicz OC, Satya Sai BVK, Morgan K, Codina R. Split, characteristic based semi-Implicit algorithm for laminar/turbulent incompressible flows. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids 1996; 787–809.

423. Zienkiewicz OC. Mechanika Komputerowa i Elementy Skonczone w Inzynierii. In Wybór Polskich Osiagnie Technologicznych na Obcyznie, Makowki ZS (ed.). PTNO: London.

424. Oñate E, Idelsohn S, Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor RL. A finite point method in computational mechanics. Applications to convective transport and fluid flow. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1996; 3839–3866.

425. Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ. Error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement: the Zienkiewicz–Zhu approach. In The Advances in Computational Mechanics (dedicated to Prof. Qian Ling Xi), Weaxie Z, Gengdong C, Xikui L (eds). Int. Academic Publications, 1996; 1–13.

426. Oñate E, Idelsohn S, Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor RL, Sacco C. A stabilized finite point method for analysis of fluid mechanics problems. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 1996; 315–346.

427. Zienkiewicz OC. Trefftz type approximation and the generalized finite element method: history and development. Computer Assisted Mechanics and Engineering Sciences 1997; 305–316.

428. Boroomand B, Zienkiewicz OC. Recovery by equilibrium in patches (Rep). International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1997; 137–164.

429. Boroomand B, Zienkiewicz OC. An Improved Rep recovery and the effectivity robustness test. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1997; 3247–3277.

430. Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor RL. The finite element patch test rEVisited—a computer test for convergence validation and error estimates. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 1997; 223–254.

431. Zhu JZ, Zienkiewicz OC. A posteriori error estimation and three dimensional automatic mesh generation. Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 1997; 167–84.

432. Zienkiewicz OC, Boroomand B. Recovery procedures in error estimation and adaptivity. IACM—Symposium on Discretization Methods in Structural Mechanics II, Vienna. Kulwer Publishers: The Netherlands, June 1997; 2–6.

433. Zienkiewicz OC, Boroomand B, Zhu JZ. Recovery procedures in error estimation and adaptivity. Part I: adaptivity in linear problems. Workshop on New Advances in Adaptive Computational Methods in Mechanics, Paris. Elsevier Publishers: Amsterdam, September 1997; 17–19.

434. Boroomand B, Zienkiewicz OC. Recovery procedures in error estimation and adaptivity, part II: adaptivity in non-linear problems of elasto-plasticity behaviours. Workshop on New Advances in Adaptive Computational Methods in Mechanics, Paris. Elsevier Publishers: Amsterdam, September 1997; 17–19.

435. Khoei AR, Lewis RW, Zienkiewicz OC. Applications of the finite element method for localized failure analysis in dynamic loading. Finite Element Analysis and Design 1997; 121–131.

436. Pastor M, Quecedo M, Zienkiewicz OC. A mixed displacement pressure formulation for numerical analysis of plastic failure. Computer and Structures 1997; 13–23.

437. Zienkiewicz OC, Rojek J, Taylor RL, Pastor M. Triangles and tetrahedra in explicit dynamic codes for solid plasticity. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1998; 565–583.

438. Satya Sai BVK, Zienkiewicz OC, Manzari MT, Lyra PR, Morgan K. General purpose vs. special algorithms for high speed flows with shocks. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids 1998; 57–80. Special Issue.

439. Codina R, Vásquez M, Zienkiewicz OC. A general algorithm for compressible and incompressible flows. Part lll: the semi-implicit form. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids 1998; 13–32. Special Issue.

440. Morandi-Cecchi M, Morgan K, Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor C. Dedication to Professor Richard Hugo Gallagher: 17.11.1927–30.09.1997. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids 1998; 1–11.

441. Schrefler BA, Zhang HW, Pastor M, Zienkiewicz OC. Strain localization modelling and pore pressure in saturated sand samples. Computational Mechanics 1998; 266–280.

442. Nithiarasu P, Zienkiewicz OC, Satya Sai BVK, Morgan K. Codina R, Vázquez M. Shock capturing viscosities for the general algorithm. In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Finite Elements in Fluids Hafez M, Heinrich JC (ed.), Tucson, AZ, 5–8 January 1998; 350–356.

443. Nithiarasu P, Zienkiewicz OC, Satya Sai BVK, Morgan K, Codina R, Vázquez M. Shock capturing viscosities for the general fluid mechanics algorithm. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids 1998; 28:1325–1353.

444. Taylor RL, Zienkiewicz OC, Oñate E. A hierarchical finite element method based on the partition of unity. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 1998; 73–84.

445. Oden JT, Duarte CAM, Zienkiewicz OC. A new cloud-based hp finite element method. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 1998; 117–126.

446. Codina R, Vázquez M, Zienkiewicz OC. A fractional step method for the solution of the compressible Navier–Stokes equation. In Computational Fluid Dynamics Reviews 1998, Hafez M, Oshima K (eds). World Scientific: Singapore, 1998; 331–347.

447. Nithiarasu P, Zienkiewicz OC. Towards better choices of adaptive mesh generation in fluid mechanics problems. ACME Conference, Exeter, 6–7 April 1998.

448. Codina R, Vázquez M, Zienkiewicz OC. An implicit fractional step finite element method for incompressible and compressible flows. In International Conference on Finite Elements Fluids, Hafez M, Heinrich JC (eds), Tucson, AZ, 5–8 January 1998; 519–524.

449. Zienkiewicz OC, Nithiarasu P, Codina R, Vázquez M, Ortiz P. Characteristic-based-split algorithm, part I: the theory and general discussion. In Invited Lecture and Proceedings of Eccomas Cfd 1998, V2, K.D.Papailiou et al. (eds), Athens, Greece, 1998; 4–16.

450. Massarotti N, Nithiarasu P, Zienkiewicz OC. Characteristic-based-split algorithm, part II: incompressible flow problems with heat transfer. In Invited Lecture and Proceedings of the ECCOMAS CFD 1998, V2, Papailiou KD et al. (eds), Athens, Greece, 1998; 17–21.

451. Massarotti N, Nithiarasu P, Zienkiewicz OC. Characteristic-based-split (CBS) algorithm for incompressible flow problems with heat transfer. International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat Fluid Flow 1998; 8(8):969–990.

452. Pastor M, Chan AHC, Zienkiewicz OC. Constitutive model and numerical modelling of liquefaction, 1998 (Chapter for a book, to be published).

453. Chan AHC, Zienkiewicz OC. Numerical modelling of static and dynamic geomechanics problems using the generalised Biot formulation and comparison with centrifuge experiments. Proceedings of the Biot Conference on Poromechanics, Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium, 14–16 September 1998; 363–370.

454. Shiomi T, Tsukuni S, Zienkiewicz OC. Application of Biot's dynamic equation to seismic liquefaction problems. Proceedings of the Biot Conference on Poromechanics, Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium, 14–16 September 1998; 505–510.

455. Huang M, Zienkiewicz OC. New unconditionally stable staggered solution procedures for coupled soil-pore fluid dynamic problems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1998; 43:1029–1052.

456. Zienkiewicz OC, Ortiz P. The CBS (characteristic-based-split) algorithm in hydraulic and shallow water flow. Second International Symposium on Rever Sedimentation and Environmental Hydraulics, University of Hong Kong, 3–12 December 1998; 16–18.

457. Pastor M, Zienkiewicz OC, Li T, Xiaoqing L, Huang M. Stabilized finite elements with equal order of interpolation for soil dynamics problems. Archives of Computational Mechanics 1999; 3–33.

458. Zienkiewicz OC, Nithiarasu P, Codina R, Vázquez M, Ortiz P. The characteristic based split (CBS) procedure: an efficient and accurate algorithm for fluid mechanics problems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids 1999; 31:359–392.

459. Nithiarasu P, Zienkiewicz OC. An adaptive finite element procedure for incompressible flow problems with heat transfer. ACME—U.K. Conference, Durham, U.K., 1999.

460. Zienkiwicz OC. The finite element method—its origins and development. U.S. Congress of Computational Mechanics, University of Colorado at Boulder, 1999.

461. Rojek J, Zienkiewicz OC, Oñate E, Postek E. Advances in finite element explicit formulation for simulation of metal forming processes. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Advanced Synthesis and Processing Technology, AMPT'99 and 16th Annual Conference on Irsish Manufacturing Committee, IMC 16, Hashmi MSJ, Looney L (eds), Doublin City University, 1999; 215–224.

462. Zienkiewicz OC. As I remember. ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics 1999; 66: 826–828.

463. Pastor M, Li T, Liu X, Zienkiewicz OC. Stabilized low-order finite elements for failure and localization problems in undrained soils and foundations. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 1999; 174(1–2):219–234.

464. Zienkiewicz OC, Boroomand B, Zhu JZ. Recovery procedures in error estimation and adaptivity. I. Adaptivity in linear problems. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 1999; 176(1–4):111–125.

465. Boroomand B, Zienkiewicz OC. Recovery procedures in error estimation and adaptivity. II. Adaptivity in nonlinear problems of elasto-plasticity behaviour. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 1999; 176(1–4):127–146.

466. Zienkiwicz OC. Achievements and some unsolved problems of finite element method. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2000; 47:9–28.

467. Nithiarasu P, Zienkiewicz OC. Adaptive mesh generation for fluid mechanics problems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2000; 47:629–662.

468. Nithiarasu P, Zienkiewicz OC. On stabilization of the CBS algorithm. Internal and external time steps. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2000; 875–880.

469. Zienkiewicz OC, Nithiarasu P. A universal algorithm for fluid dynamics. The characteristic-based-split (CBS). Some tests on stability and boundary conditions. Archives of Mechanics 2000; accepted.

470. Nithiarasu P, Zienkiewicz OC. Characteristic based split (CBS) algorithm for fluid dynamics problems. 8th ACME—U.K. Conference, Greenwich, London, April 2000.

471. Pastor M, Li T, Liu X, Zienkiewicz OC, Quecedo M. A fractional step algorithm allowing equal order of interpolation for coupled analysis of saturated soil problems. Mechanics of Cohesive—Frictional Materials 2000; 5(7):511–534.

472. Quecedo M, Pastor M, Zienkiewicz OC. Application of a fractional step method to localization problems. Computers and Structures 2000; 74:535–545.

473. Nithiarasu P, Zienkiewicz OC. Adaptive mesh generation for fluid mechanics problems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2000; 47(1–3):10–30.

474. Li XK, Wu WH, Zienkiewicz OC. Implicit characteristic Galerkin method for convection–diffusion equations. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2000; 47(10):1689–1708.

475. Nithiarasu P, Zienkiewicz OC. On stabilization of the CBS algorithm: internal and external time steps. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2000; 48(6):875–880.

476. Quecedo M, Pastor M, Zienkiewicz OC. Enhanced linear triangle for plasticity problems in J2 solids. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 2000; 188(1–3):145–163.

477. Zienkiewicz OC. The era of computational mechanics: where do we go now? Meccanica 2001; 36(1):151–157.

478. Rojek J, Zienkiewicz OC, Oñate E, Postek E. Advances in FE explicit formulation for simulation of metal forming processes. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 2001; 119(1–3):41–47.

479. Huang MS, Wu SM, Zienkiewicz OC. Incompressible or nearly incompressible soil dynamic behaviour—a new staggered algorithm to circumvent restrictions of mixed formulation. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 2001; 21(2):169–179.

480. Massarotti N, Nithiarasu P, Zienkiewicz OC. Natural convection in porous medium-fluid interface problems. A finite element analysis by using the CBS procedure. International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat and Fluid Flow 2001; 11(5):473–490.

481. Massarotti N, Nithiarasu P, Zienkiewicz OC. Characteristic-based-split (CBS) algorithm for incompressible flow problems with heat transfer (vol 8, pg 969, 1998). International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat and Fluid Flow 2001; 11(2–3):278.

482. Codina R, Zienkiewicz OC. CBS versus GLS stabilization of the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations and the role of the time step as stabilization parameter. Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering 2002; 18(2):99–112.

483. Oñate E, Taylor RL, Zienkiewicz OC, Rojek J. A residual correction method based on finite calculus. Engineering Computations 2003l; 20(5):629–658.

484. Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor RL, Sherwin SJ, Peiro J. On discontinuous Galerkin methods. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2003; 58(8):1119–1148.

485. Oñate E, Rojek J, Taylor RL, Zienkiewicz OC. Finite calculus formulation for incompressible solids using linear triangles and tetrahedra. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2004; 59(11):1473–1500.

486. Zienkiewicz OC. The birth of the finite element method and of computational mechanics. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2004; 60(1):3–10.

487. Huang MS, Zhong QI, Tham LG, Zienkiewicz OC. On the stable finite element procedures for dynamic problems of saturated porous media. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2004; 61(9):1421–1450.

488. Boroomand B, Ghaffarian M, Zienkiewicz OC. On application of two superconvergent recovery procedures to plate problems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2004; 61(10):1644–1673.

489. Zienkiewicz OC. The background of error estimation and adaptivity in finite element computations. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 2006; 195(4–6):207–213.

490. Sherwin SJ, Kirby RM, Peiro J, Taylor RL, Zienkiewicz OC. On 2D elliptic discontinuous Galerkin methods. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2006; 65(5): 752–784.

491. Zienkiewicz OC. Special issue: characteristic-based-split (CBS) procedure—forward. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2006; 1513.

492. Nithiarasu P, Codina R, Zienkiewicz OC. The characteristic-based split (CBS) scheme—a unified approach to fluid dynamics. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2006; 66(10):1514–1546.

493. Ortiz P, Zienkiewicz OC, Szmelter J. Hydrodynamics and transport in estuaries and rivers by the CBS finite element method. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2006; 66(10):1569–1586.

494. Nithiarasu P, Zienkiewicz OC. Analysis of an explicit and matrix free fractional step method for incompressible flows. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 2006; 195 (41–43):5537–5551.

495. Samuelsson A, Zienkiewicz OC. History of the stiffness method. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2006; 67(2):149–157.

496. Diez P, Rodenas JJ, Zienkiewicz OC. Equilibrated patch recovery error estimates: simple and accurate upper bounds of the error. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2007; 69(10):2075–2098.

497. Huang MS, Liu M, Zienkiewicz OC. Stabilized procedures for finite element analysis in saturated soils under cyclic loading. Computational Science-ICCS 2007. 7th International Conference. Proceedings, Part III, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4489, 2007; 1105–1113.

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    See: In Memoriam to a Great Engineering Scientist and Educator, International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering 2000; 47:3–7.

Ancillary