The aerodynamic performance of a compressor is highly sensitive to uncertain working conditions. This paper presents an efficient robust aerodynamic optimization method on the basis of nondeterministic computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation and multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). A nonintrusive polynomial chaos method is used in conjunction with an existing well-verified CFD module to quantify the uncertainty propagation in the flow field. This method is validated by comparing with a Monte Carlo method through full 3D CFD simulations on an axial compressor (National Aeronautics and Space Administration rotor 37). On the basis of the validation, the nondeterministic CFD is coupled with a surrogate-based MOGA to search for the Pareto front. A practical engineering application is implemented to the robust aerodynamic optimization of rotor 37 under random outlet static pressure. Two curve angles and two sweep angles at tip and hub are used as design variables. Convergence analysis shows that the surrogate-based MOGA can obtain the Pareto front properly. Significant improvements of both mean and variance of the efficiency are achieved by the robust optimization. The comparison of the robust optimization results with that of the initial design, and a deterministic optimization demonstrate that the proposed method can be applied to turbomachinery successfully. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.