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Keywords:

  • shells;
  • solid-like shell element;
  • isogeometric analysis;
  • Bézier extraction;
  • geometrically nonlinear analysis

SUMMARY

An isogeometric solid-like shell formulation is proposed in which B-spline basis functions are used to construct the mid-surface of the shell. In combination with a linear Lagrange shape function in the thickness direction, this yields a complete three-dimensional representation of the shell. The proposed shell element is implemented in a standard finite element code using Bézier extraction. The formulation is verified using different benchmark tests. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.