• self-efficacy;
  • middle school youth;
  • early adolescence


The development and psychometric study of a measure of middle schoolers' perceptions of self-efficacy for physical, emotional, and academic behaviors appropriate to their age and developmental tasks are described. The validation of the Middle School Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (MISSE) included the adaptation of existing items and the generation of new ones. Items were subjected to judges' review by two expert panels and were tested with a large, geographically diverse sample of youngsters aged 11–14. Statistical analyses included factor analysis, internal consistency estimations, t tests, and analyses of variance for hypothesis testing related to construct validity. Results showed support for the expected factors and provided evidence of the validity of the MISSE. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Res Nurs Health 26:376–386, 2003