• hardiness;
  • caregiving;
  • appraisal;
  • stress and coping


Although researchers have suggested that hardiness is associated with improved outcomes in stressful situations, findings regarding its moderating effects have been mixed. Relationships among hardiness, appraisal, coping, self-perceived health, and other antecedent variables were examined in a convenience sample of 72 community-dwelling spouse caregivers for persons with dementia. In this descriptive correlational design, participants completed a mailed survey. Regression analyses were used to detect main and moderating effects. Antecedent variables predicted 27% of the variance in caregiver appraisal, 23% of the variance in emotion-focused coping, and 22% of the variance in self-perceived health. In addition to its significant main effects, hardiness functioned as a significant moderator between the set of antecedent variables and caregiver appraisal. More research is needed to support the presence of main and moderating effects of hardiness in dementia caregivers. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Res Nurs Health 26:445–458, 2003