• health behavior;
  • models;
  • theoretical;
  • ear protective devices


Pender's health promotion model (HPM) has been revised, including substantial changes in its structure. The purpose of this study was to compare the fit and predictive usefulness of the original and revised structures of the HPM as applied to the use of hearing protection devices by 703 construction workers. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the two alternative forms of the model. Both forms of the model fit well, with the revised structure having a better fit and explaining more of the variance in use of hearing protection (28% vs. 18%). Results support the revised structure of the health promotion model (HPM) over the original form, and indicate it may be useful in understanding and predicting use of hearing protection. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Res Nurs Health 29:3–17, 2006