• cancer cachexia;
  • tumor necrosis factor-alpha;
  • Lewis lung carcinoma;
  • B16 melanoma;
  • mice;
  • conjugated linoleic acid


Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which is found in dairy products, reduces synthesis of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFa), a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a major role in tumor-induced skeletal muscle wasting (SMW). The B16 melanoma expresses TNFa mRNA, and induced SMW with no change in muscle levels of TNFa type 1 receptor (TNFR1) protein. A diet containing .5% CLA had no effect on SMW or TNFR1 in mice bearing B16 tumors. In contrast, the Lewis lung carcinoma expresses low levels of TNFa mRNA, induced SMW, and increased muscle levels of TNFR1. A diet containing .5% CLA reduced SMW, but had no effect on muscle levels of TNFR1. We conclude that that tumor-induced SMW can occur independent of muscle levels of TNFR1. Further study is needed before CLA can be tested in persons with cancer cachexia. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Res Nurs Health 29:98–104, 2006