• African American;
  • breast cancer;
  • women


In this descriptive correlational study, 48 African American women were assessed for delay in care-seeking for breast cancer symptoms by examining: (a) relationships between selected psychosocial variables (fear, denial, utility, and social norm) and delay, (b) relationships between delay and having an identified health provider, affordable health care services, and accessible health-care services, (c) whether denial would mediate the effect of fear on delay, (d) whether utility would moderate the effects of social norm and facilitating conditions on delay, and (e) whether denial was related to escape-avoidance coping. Participants completed mailed questionnaires. Pearson correlation and separate regression analyses showed that denial was associated with increased delay. Confrontive coping, social support, and problem-solving strategies had no relationship with delay. Interventions focusing on denial could help enhance early care seeking. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Res Nurs Health 30:542–557, 2007