• child;
  • coping;
  • interaction;
  • venipuncture


The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the influences of adult behaviors on child coping behaviors during venipunctures (VPs) in an emergency department. Observations of children and adults from 66 VPs were coded using a modified version of the Child–Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale and analyzed using sequential analysis. Results showed adult reassurance behavior promoted child distress behaviors, such as crying, as well as nondistress behaviors, such as information seeking; adult distraction behaviors promoted children's distraction, control, and coping behaviors; and children frequently ignored adult behaviors. Findings suggest further exploration of children's internal strategies for coping, such as appraisal, and clarifying the role of adult reassurance in child coping behaviors. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Res Nurs Health