• culture;
  • filial attitudes;
  • filial values;
  • intergenerational responsibility;
  • reciprocity;
  • caregiver health outcomes


Literature on responsibility of adult children for aging parents reflects lack of conceptual clarity. We examined filial concepts across five cultural groups: African-, Asian-, Euro-, Latino-, and Native Americans. Data were randomly divided for scale development (n = 285) and cross-validation (n = 284). Exploratory factor analysis on 59 items identified three filial concepts: Responsibility, Respect, and Care. Confirmatory factor analysis on a 12-item final scale showed data fit the three-factor model better than a single factor solution despite substantial correlations between the factors (.82, .82 for Care with Responsibility and Respect, and .74 for Responsibility with Respect). The scale can be used in cross-cultural research to test hypotheses that predict associations among filial values, filial caregiving, and caregiver health outcomes. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Res Nurs Health 34:310–326, 2011