Caregiving and positioning effects on preterm infant states over 24 hours in a neonatal unit in Taiwan

Authors

  • Jen-Jiuan Liaw,

    Corresponding author
    1. School of Nursing, National Defense Medical Center, 161 Sec. 6 Mingchuan E. RD, Neihu 114, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC
    • School of Nursing, National Defense Medical Center, 161 Sec. 6 Mingchuan E. RD, Neihu 114, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.
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    • Associate Professor.

  • Luke Yang,

    1. Department of Social Welfare, Hsuan Chuang University, Taiwan, ROC
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    • Assistant Professor.

  • Chyi Lo,

    1. School of Nursing, Department of Nursing, China Medical University & Adjunctive Supervisor, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC
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    • Assistant Professor.

  • Yeong-Seng Yuh,

    1. Department of Pediatrics, National Defense Medical Center & Neonatologists, Department of Pediatric, Cheng-Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC
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    • Associate Professor.

  • Hueng-Chuen Fan,

    1. Department of Pediatrics, National Defense Medical Center, & Tri Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC
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    • Assistant Professor.

  • Yue-Cune Chang,

    1. Department of Mathematics, Tamkang University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC
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    • Professor.

  • Shih-Ching Chao

    1. School of Nursing, National Defense Medical Center, 161 Sec. 6 Mingchuan E. RD, Neihu 114, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC
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    • Lecturer.


  • The investigators wish to express their deepest appreciation to all of the participants and their parents in this study. We acknowledge the National Science Council of Taiwan, ROC for grant support (NSC 97-2314-B-016-020-MY2 (097M0234)). We would also like to extend our thanks to Dr. Evelyn Thoman, faculty member at the University of Washington School of Nursing, for teaching us how to observe infant states. Finally, we offer special thanks for assistance from the nurses in the neonatal unit at Tri-Service General Hospital.

Abstract

In this prospective, descriptive study, we used a repeated-measures design to explore the 24-hour effects of caregiving and positioning on preterm infants' states and the factors associated with state changes. Thirty preterm infants (gestational age 27.6–36.1 weeks) were observed for 3 days in the neonatal intensive care unit to record six states: quiet sleep (QS), active sleep, transition, active awake, quiet awake, and fussy or crying. The occurrences of QS increased when infants received no caregiving, social interaction, non-nutritive sucking (NNS), and were laterally positioned. However, QS significantly decreased and fussy or crying state increased when infants received routine and intrusive caregiving. These results suggest that caregiving, NNS, and positioning should be appropriately provided to facilitate infants' sleep, and reduce fussiness or crying. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Res Nurs Health 35:132–145, 2012

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