Reliability and validity of the 4-item perceived stress scale among pregnant women: Results from the OTIS antidepressants study

Authors

  • Fatiha Karam,

    1. Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    2. Research Center, CHU Sainte-Justine, 3175, Côte-Sainte Catherine, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1C5
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    • PhD Student.

  • Anick Bérard,

    Corresponding author
    1. Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    2. Research Center, CHU Sainte-Justine, 3175, Côte-Sainte Catherine, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1C5
    • Texas Teratogen Information Service, University of North Texas, Denton, TX.
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    • Director of Research Unit on Medications and Pregnancy and Professor.

  • Odile Sheehy,

    1. Research Center, CHU Sainte-Justine, 3175, Côte-Sainte Catherine, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1C5
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    • Biostatistician Senior.

  • Marie-Claude Huneau,

    1. Research Center, CHU Sainte-Justine, 3175, Côte-Sainte Catherine, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1C5
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    • Research Assistant.

  • Gerald Briggs,

    1. Outpatient Clinics, Memorial Care Center for Women, Miller Children's Hospital, Long Beach Memorial Medical Center, Long Beach, CA
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    • B. Pharm, F.C.C.P., Pharmacist Clinical Specialist.

  • Christina Chambers,

    1. Department of Paediatrics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA
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    • Project Director and Perinatal Epidemiologist.

  • Adrienne Einarson,

    1. Motherisk Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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    • Assistant Director of Clinical Services.

  • Diana Johnson,

    1. California Teratogen Information Service, San Diego, CA
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    • Study Manager.

  • Kelly Kao,

    1. Department of Paediatrics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA
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    • Study Manager.

  • Gideon Koren,

    1. Motherisk Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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    • Director of the Motherisk Program and Professor of Paediatrics, Pharmacology, Pharmacy, Medical Genetics, Medicine and Physiology/Pharmacology.

  • Brigitte Martin,

    1. Centre IMAGe, Department of Pharmacy, CHU Ste Justine, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
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    • Clinical Pharmacist and Manager of the IMAGe Center.

  • Janine E. Polifka,

    1. Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA
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    • Project Director.

  • Sara H. Riordan,

    1. College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ
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    • Genetic Counselor.

  • Mark Roth,

    1. Pregnancy Risk Network, NYS Teratogen Information Service, Binghamton, NY
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    • Teratogen Information Specialist.

  • Sharon Voyer Lavigne,

    1. Connecticut Pregnancy Exposure Information Service, Division of Human Genetics, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT
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    • Coordinator of CPEIS.

  • Lori Wolfe,

    1. Texas Teratogen Information Service, University of North Texas, Denton, TX
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    • Director of the Texas Teratogen Information Service.

  • the OTIS Research Committee

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    • Organization of Teratology Information Specialists Research Committee: AnickBérard, PhD, Stephen Braddock MD, Gerald Briggs (Co-Chair), Pharm D, Christina Chambers, PhD, MPH, Dee Quinn, MS, CGC, Gideon Koren, MD, Kenneth Lyons Jones, MD, Steve Lamm, MD, Richard Miller, PhD, Janine Polifka (Co-Chair), PhD, Sara H Riordan, MS, CGC, Al Romeo, RN, PhD, Offie P. Soldin, PhD, Katherine Wisner MD, MS and Lori Wolfe, MS, CGC.


  • We thank each OTIS center and the research nurses for the recruitment of study participants. This study was supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR, grant number IHD-79787), the “Fonds de la Recherche en Santé du Quebec” (FRSQ), and the “Conseil du Médicament.” Dr. AnickBérard is the recipient of a career award from the FRSQ and is on the endowment Research Chair of the Famille Louis-Boivin on Medications, Pregnancy and Lactation at the Faculty of Pharmacy of the University of Montreal.

Abstract

We aimed to estimate the reliability of the 4-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and its validity in predicting maternal depression and quality of life (QoL). Data regarding stress, depression and QoL were collected during pregnancy among a sub-sample from the Organization of Teratology Information Specialists Antidepressants in Pregnancy Cohort. The 4-item PSS demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = .79), alternate forms stability reliability with the 10-item PSS (Pearson correlation coefficient r = .63; p < .001), convergent validity with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (r = .67; p < .001), and concurrent validity with the mental health component of the Short-Form-12 (r = −.62; p < .001) as a measure of QoL. The 4-item PSS is a valid and useful tool for assessing maternal stress during pregnancy. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Res Nurs Health 35:363–375, 2012

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