• cervical cancer;
  • Pap smear test;
  • nursing interventions


The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a three-stage nursing intervention to increase Turkish women's participation in Pap smear testing. Knowledge and beliefs about cervical cancer screening and barriers to Pap smears also were explored. In a quasi-experimental study in a target population of 2,500 women, 237 completed pre-test measures to inform the intervention, and an educational brochure was distributed to all 2,500. As a result, 510 women (20.4%) accepted free Pap smears. Of the remaining 1,990 women, 417 were randomly selected for telephone interviews, 302 participated, and 158 of these (52.3%) participated in free Pap smear testing. Of the 144 who did not have Pap smears after participating in telephone interviews, 54 were then interviewed face-to-face, and 20 (37.0%) decided to accept free Pap smears. A total of 668 women had accepted free Pap smears by the end of the intervention period. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Res Nurs Health 36:146–157, 2013