We developed and examined a shortened form of the Korean Health Literacy Scale (KHLS) with a sample of 543 elderly in South Korea. Rasch analysis of the KHLS was conducted to examine the unidimensionality of the scale, along with a confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate both the item fit and item difficulty. Based on these data the KHLS was narrowed down to 12 of the original 24 items (7 comprehension and numeracy questions and 5 health-related questions). The internal consistency of the resulting short form (S-KHLS) was 0.80. The S-KHLS is a short and reliable scale for testing the health literacy skills of elderly Korean adults. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Res Nurs Health 36: 524–534, 2013.