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Keywords:

  • grandmothers;
  • caregiving;
  • resourcefulness;
  • expressive writing;
  • verbal disclosure

Abstract

In this pilot study of 102 grandmothers raising grandchildren, we used a quasi-experimental, repeated measures design to examine effects of resourcefulness training reinforced by expressive writing (journaling) or verbal disclosure (digital voice recording) in reducing stress and depressive symptoms and enhancing quality of life. Resourcefulness training was compared with expressive writing, verbal disclosure, and attention control conditions. Both the expressive writing and verbal disclosure methods for reinforcing resourcefulness training were more effective than the other three conditions in reducing stress and depressive symptoms and improving quality of life. No difference was found between the two reinforcement methods. Grandmothers may benefit from learning resourcefulness skills and from practicing them in ways that best fit their needs and lifestyles. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.