• pressure ulcer;
  • decubitus ulcer;
  • skin integrity;
  • incontinence-associated dermatitis;
  • incontinence;
  • systematic review;
  • meta-analysis


The aim of this analysis was to identify the association between incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD), its most important etiologic factors (incontinence and moisture), and pressure ulcers (PUs). A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. We searched Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for relevant papers dating through March 15, 2013. Fifty-eight studies were included. Measures of relative effect at the univariate level were meta-analyzed. In most studies (86%), a significant association between variables of interest was found, with pooled odds ratios of PUs in univariate models between 1.92 (95% CI 1.54–2.38) for urinary incontinence and 4.99 (95% CI 2.62–9.50) for double incontinence (p < .05). This evidence indicates an association between IAD, its most important etiological factors, and PUs. Methodological issues should be considered when interpreting the results of this review. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.