The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the effectiveness of teaching primiparous mothers about infant behavior. Experimental mothers (n = 17) received a teaching intervention representative of the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale when their infants were 2 weeks old; contrast mothers (n = 16) completed a Newborn Information Checklist about infant behavior at home two weeks postnatally; control mothers (n = 13) received neither teaching nor a checklist. At a 4-week postnatal office visit, experimental mothers had more knowledge about infant behavior than either the controst or control mothers. There was no difference among the groups regarding maternal confidence in interpreting behavioral cues of their own infant. Contrast mothers reported wanting information about topics included in the teaching intervention.