Janice M. Layton, PhD, RN, is a professor in and chairperson of the Department of Nursing, California State University at San Bernardino. May H. Wykle, PhD, RN, is a professor in and the chairperson of the Department of Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing, School of Nursing, Case Western Reserve University.
A validity study of four empathy instruments
Version of Record online: 19 JAN 2007
Copyright © 1990 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company
Research in Nursing & Health
Volume 13, Issue 5, pages 319–325, October 1990
How to Cite
Layton, J. M. and Wykle, M. H. (1990), A validity study of four empathy instruments. Res. Nurs. Health, 13: 319–325. doi: 10.1002/nur.4770130508
- Issue online: 19 JAN 2007
- Version of Record online: 19 JAN 2007
- Manuscript Revised: 1 MAR 1990
- Manuscript Accepted: 1 MAR 1990
- Manuscript Received: 27 MAR 1989
- Ohio Department of Mental Health, Office of Program Evaluation and Research, Columbus, Ohio
The construct validity of four empathy instruments was evaluated through examining group differences and correlations between tests. Subjects were 18 registered nurses (RNs) and 32 nursing assistants (NAs). Instruments used were the Empathy Test (Layton, 1979), the Carkhuff (1969a, 1969b) Empathic Understanding in Interpersonal Processes Scale, the empathy subtest of the Barrett-Lennard (1962) Relationship Inventory, and LaMonica's (1981) Empathy Construct Rating Scale (ECRS). The first hypothesis, that RNs would score significantly higher than NAs on all empathy measures, was confirmed (p <.0003 to p < .027). The second hypothesis, that the various empathy measures would be positively related, was partially confirmed. The Carkhuff scale was significantly correlated with the ECRS (r=.25, p < .05). The ECRS and the Barrett-Lennard also were correlated (r=.78, p < .001). Results are interpreted using Barrett-Lennard's (1981) theory of empathy.