The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale was developed to measure health beliefs related to osteoporosis. It is a 35-item self-report questionnaire based on the Health Belief Model which is specifically designed to assess beliefs related to exercise behaviors and calcium intake of elderly subjects. The instrument consists of seven subscales: Seriousness, Susceptibility, Health Motivation, Calcium Benefits, Calcium Barriers, Exercise Benefits, and Exercise Barriers. The instrument was tested on a sample of 150 elderly individuals. The psychometric properties of the scales are discussed along with recommendations for its use in research and practice.