The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between maternal confidence in mothers of premature infants, maternal behaviors and skills, and infant temperament. The relationship between certain prenatal and background variables and maternal confidence also was assessed. The sample consisted of 49 mother-infant pairs from low socioeconomic backgrounds who were followed for 8 months. Maternal behaviors were assessed in the neonatal intensive care unit and during 4- and 8-month follow-up visits at home. Infant temperament was assessed using the Bates Infant Characteristics Questionnaire. The results revealed that maternal confidence was related to education, income, and parity as well as the presence and severity of intraventricular bleed. There was no relationship between observed maternal behaviors and skills and perceived confidence by mothers. Maternal confidence was related to infant temperament ratings.