Beyond campbell and fiske: Assessment of convergent and discriminant validity



While it is not an innovation in the more established social sciences, the multitrait multimethod (MTMM) technique (Campbell & Fiske, 1959) and additional, more powerful statistical methods of interpreting a MTMM matrix of correlations, have not been used extensively in nursing to asses construct validity of new instruments. This article reviews the Campbell and Fiske method for the assessment of convergent and discriminant validity, reviews the application of the method in the nursing literature, and describes the limitations of the original method. In addition, the procedures, strengths, and limitations of the analysis of variance and confirmatory factor analytic approaches to the quantification of Campbell and Fiske's criteria are described.