With improvement in survival of patients treated with heart transplant, evaluation of recovery with respect to psychosocial function has become an important issue. In this study, psychosocial functioning of 44 heart transplant recipients pretransplant was compared to their functioning 6 months posttransplant. Before transplantation, patients experienced considerable psychosocial distress attributable to illness. At 6 months after transplantation, the majority of patients showed significant improvement in emotional, domestic, sexual, social, and vocational functioning. However, 25% of patients showed deterioration in psychosocial adjustment and 11% showed an increase in mood disturbance. Further effort is indicated to improve psychosocial outcome of heart transplantation.