Differences in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environmental stress, uncertainty, and anxiety of 23 mothers and fathers (couples) whose premature infants were hospitalized in an NICU were explored. Alterations in the parental role were found to be stressful for both mothers and fathers, with mothers reporting significantly greater stress in this area than did fathers. Stress and uncertainty decreased significantly over time. Mothers and fathers did not differ in level of anxiety. Findings suggest that both mothers and fathers are distressed by the admission of a premature to an NICU; however, mothers may be more distressed by certain aspects of the experience.