Perceived control over pain: Relation to distress and disability


  • Dr. Nancy Wells DNSc, RN

    Director Of Nursing Research, Corresponding author
    1. Vanderbilt University Medical Center
    • Vanderbilt University Medical Center, D-2120 Medical Center North, Nashville, TN 37232-2410
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The relationship between perceived control over pain and outcomes of distress and disability were studied in a sample consisting of 71 patients with chronic nonmalignant pain. The pain-related control belief subscales measured three aspects of control: lack of control, ability to cope, and negative outcome expectancy. After controlling for pain intensity, the control belief sub-scales explained a significant amount of the variance in distress and disability. These findings provide support for cognitive modulation of the distress and disability associated with chronic nonmalignant pain.