A cross-sectional exploratory design was used to assess the relationships of personality, socioeconomic status, and appraisal with functional and emotional outcomes in 77 men and 50 women with HIV infection. Multiple regression analysis showed that, among men, socioeconomic status moderated the negative relationship between self-esteem and disruption in usual activities. Consistent with Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) theory, appraisal of HIV threat mediated the negative relationship between self-esteem and mood disturbance for men and women, and the positive relationship between self-esteem and purpose in life for women. Appraisal did not mediate between personality variables and disruption in usual activities or life satisfaction for men or women. ©1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.