Special Issue Paper
Generation green: understanding the motivations and mechanisms influencing young adults' environmental volunteering
Article first published online: 28 NOV 2011
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing
Special Issue: Testing Mechanisms for Philanthropic Behaviour
Volume 16, Issue 4, pages 325–341, November 2011
How to Cite
McDougle, L. M., Greenspan, I. and Handy, F. (2011), Generation green: understanding the motivations and mechanisms influencing young adults' environmental volunteering. Int. J. Nonprofit Volunt. Sect. Mark., 16: 325–341. doi: 10.1002/nvsm.431
- Issue published online: 28 NOV 2011
- Article first published online: 28 NOV 2011
- 1985. From intentions to actions: a theory of planned behavior. In Action-Control: From Cognition to Behavior, Kuhl J, Beckman J (eds.). Springer: Heidelberg; 11–39. .
- 1991. The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Planned Decision Processes 50: 179–211. .
- 1973. Attitudinal and normative variables as predictors of specific behaviors. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 27: 41–57. , .
- BLS. 2010. Economic News Release. Table 4: Volunteers by type of main organization for which volunteer activities were performed and selected characteristics, September 2010. Bureau of Labor Statistics. http://www.bls.gov/news.release/volun.t04.htm [23 August 2011].
- 2007. Identifying the motivations of environmental volunteers. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 50(4): 503–516. , .
- CamWest News Service. 2007. Generation Y Loves Environment, Hates Bad Breath. http://www.canada.com/topics/technology/science/story.html?id=c24b5194-2277-4d75-b32d-0ff37d5eac59 [21 April 2011].
- 1999. Life paths into effective environmental action. The Journal of Environmental Education 31(1): 15–26. .
- 2007. Education for strategic environmental behavior. Environmental Education Research 13(4): 437–452. , .
- 1999. The motivations to volunteer: theoretical and practical considerations. Current Directions in Psychological Science 8(5): 156–159.Direct Link:, .
- 1992. Volunteers' motivations: a functional strategy for the recruitment, placement, and retention of volunteers. Nonprofit Management & Leadership 2: 333–350. , , .
- 1996. Volunteers' motivations: findings from a national survey. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 25: 485–505. , , .
- 1991. Measuring motivation to volunteer in human services. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 27(3): 269–284. , .
- 2000. Environmental values, beliefs, and actions: a situational approach. Environment and Behavior 32(6): 832–848. , .
- 2000. Web surveys: a review of issues and approaches. Public Opinion Quarterly 64: 464–494. .
- 2004. Understanding Environmental Literacy in America. National Environmental Education & Training Foundation: Washington, DC. .
- 1998. Social structural and social psychological bases of environmental concern. Environment and Behavior 30(4): 450–471. , , .
- 1997. Fostering volunteerism in an environmental stewardship group. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 40(4): 483–505. .
- EPA. 2001. Test Your “Environmental IQ.” United States Environmental Protection Agency. Doc. No. EPA-171-F-98-018. www.epa.gov/education/pdf/18EnvrntQuiz.pdf [21 April 2008].
- 2011. Determinants of young Australians’ environmental actions: the role of responsibility attributions, locus of control, knowledge and attitudes. Environmental Education Research: 1–16. DOI: 10.1080/13504622.2011.592936 , .
- 2002. Young People and The Environment: An Asia-Pacific Perspective. Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, The Netherlands. , , .
- 1975. Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Addison-Wesley: Reading, MA. , .
- 1997. Working for nothing: the supply of volunteer labor. Journal of Labor Economics 15(1) Part 2: S140-S166. .
- 2011. Volunteer motivations and constraints among college students: analysis of the Volunteer Function Inventory and leisure constraints models. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly: 1–26. DOI: 10.1177/0899764011406738 , .
- 2009. Environmental Studies Enrollment Soars. http://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/02/24/environmental-studies-enrollments-soar/ [21 April 2011]. .
- 2003. Appreciating The Values, Needs and Potential of The Stewardship and Conservation Sector in Canada: Strategic Directions for Funding and Other Support. The Leading Edge: Stewardship & Conservation in Canada: Vancouver, BC. , , .
- 1992. Environmental attitudes: 20 years of change? The Journal of Environmental Education 24(1): 15–26. .
- 1994. Environmental issues: Cornell students' willingness to take action. The Journal of Environmental Education 25(1): 34–42. .
- 2010. A cross-cultural examination of student volunteering: is it all about résumé building? Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 39: 498–523. , , , , , , , , , , , .
- 2009. How generation Y and Boomers will reshape your agenda. Harvard Business Review 87(7/8): 76–84. , , .
- 1986/87. Analysis and synthesis of research on responsible environmental behavior: a meta-analysis. The Journal of Environmental Education 18: 1–8. , , .
- 1981. Altruism, volunteers, and volunteerism. Journal of Voluntary Action Research 10(1): 21–36. .
- 2001. Predicting hunting intentions and behavior: an application of the theory of planned behavior. Leisure Sciences 23: 165–178. , , .
- 2005. Why get involved? Reasons for voluntary association activity among Americans and Canadians. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 34: 387–403. , , .
- 2002. Generation units and the student protest movement in the United States: an intra- and intergenerational analysis. Political Psychology 23(2): 303–324. .
- 1992. The social bases of environmental concern: have they changed over time? Rural Sociology 57(1): 28–47. , .
- 1999. Ecological behavior, environmental attitude, and feelings of responsibility for the environment. European Psychologist 4(2): 59–74. , , , .
- 1996. Values and their effect on pro-environmental behavior. Environment and Behavior 28(1): 111–133. .
- 1960. The functional approach to the study of attitudes. Public Opinion Quarterly 24(2): 163–204. .
- 2002. Mind the gap: why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental action? Environmental Education Research 8(3): 239–260. , .
- 2011. Environmental volunteers: factors influencing their involvement in environmental action. Environmental Education Research: 1–23. DOI: 10.1080/13504622.2011.572159 , , .
- 2003. Volunteering Among Young People. The Center for Information & Research on Civic Learning & Engagement (CIRCLE). www.civicyouth.org [21 April 2011]. .
- 2004. Factors affecting decisions to volunteer in nongovernmental organizations. Environment and Behavior 36: 112–126. , .
- 2010. Generation green. CRM Magazine 14(4): 12–13. .
- 2007. Environmental Volunteering: Motivations, Modes and Outcomes. CSIRO Socio-Economics and the Environment in Discussion Working Paper Series 2007–03. http://ideas.repec.org/s/cse/wpaper.html [2 May 2011]. , .
- 2005. Adolescent environmental behaviors: can knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy make a difference? Environment and Behavior 37(4): 511–532. , .
- 2008. Volunteers: A Social Profile. Indiana University Press: Bloomington. , .
- 2000. Race and formal volunteering: the differential effects of class and religion. Social Forces 78(4): 1539–1571. , , .
- 2007. Volunteering in the Natural Outdoors in the UK and Ireland: A Literature Review. Institute for Volunteering Research: London, UK. .
- 2008. Environmental Volunteering in The North East of England. Institute for Volunteering Research. .
- 2007. Citizen participation in neighborhood organizations and its relationship to volunteers' self and collective efficacy and sense of community. Social Work Research 31: 109–120. .
- 2001. Correlates of environmental behaviors: bringing back social context. Environment & Behavior 33: 181–208. , , .
- 1995. Sustained helping without obligation: motivation, longevity of service, and perceived attitude change among AIDS volunteers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 68: 671–686. , .
- 2000. Volunteerism and the life course: investigating age-related agendas for action. Basic and Applied Social Psychology 22(3): 181–197. , , .
- 2008. From ambivalence to activism: young people's environmental views and actions. Youth Studies Australia 27(2): 18–25. .
- 2011. The Millennials: Connecting to America's Largest Generation. B & H Books: Nashville, TN. , .
- 2005. The motivations and expectations of volunteers on cycle trails: the case of the National Cycle Network. Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development 2: 101–114. , .
- 2006. Environmental Volunteers: Are They Driven by Altruism and A Strong Feeling of Regional Identity. Proceedings of the Australasian Nonprofit and Social Marketing (ANSM) Conference, Newcastle, Australia. http://ro.uow.edu.au/commpapers/88/ [2 May 2011]. , .
- 2005. Altruistic individualists: motivations for international volunteering among young adults in Switzerland. International Journal of Voluntary & Nonprofit Organizations 16(2): 109–122. .
- 1973. The Nature of Human Values. Free Press: New York. .
- 2009. ‘Making Volunteering Easier': The story of Environmental Volunteering in South West England. Institute for Volunteering Research: London, UK. .
- 2001. Predicting volunteer commitment in environmental stewardship programs. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 44(5): 629–658. , , .
- 2001. The structure of environmental concern: concern for self, other people, and the biosphere. Journal of Environmental Psychology 21: 327–339. .
- 1998. Values and pro-environmental behavior: a five-country survey. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 29(4): 540–558. , .
- 1973. Normative explanations of helping behaviors: a critique, proposal, and empirical test. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 9(4): 349–364. .
- 1977. Normative influences on altruism. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 10: 221–279. .
- 1994. Environmental attitudes and behavior: a Pennsylvania survey. Environment and Behavior 26(2): 239–260. , .
- 1992. Who helps and why? In Helping and Being Helped: Naturalistic Studies, Spacapan S, Oskamp S (eds.). Sage: Newbury Park, CA; 213–239. , .
- 2000. Toward a coherent theory of environmentally significant behavior. Journal of Social Issues 56(3): 407–424. .
- 1993. Value orientations, gender and environmental concern. Environment and Behavior 25: 322–348. , , .
- 1999. Environmentalism for A New Millennium. Oxford University Press: Oxford. .
- 2010. Pro-environmental behavior: rational choice meets moral motivation. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 1185: 211–224. , , .
- 1980. The social bases of environmental concern: a review of hypotheses, explanations, and empirical evidence. Public Opinion Quarterly 44: 181–197. , .
- 1992. Predicting recycling behavior from global and specific environmental attitudes and changes in recycling opportunities. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 22(20): 1580–1607. , .
- 2010. Why People Help: Motivations and Barriers for Stewardship Volunteering. Proceedings of the Human Dimensions of Natural Resource Management Conference 99–113. Columbia Mountains Institute of Applied Ecology. .
- 2011. Volunteerism of older adults in the United States. International Review of Public and Nonprofit Marketing. DOI: 10.1007/s12208-011-0069-6 , , .
- 1995. An analysis of the traits and motivations of college students involved in service organizations. Journal of College Student Development 36(1): 27–38. , , .
- 2004. The octagon model of volunteer motivation: results of a phenomenological analysis. Voluntas: International J. of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 15(1): 21–46. .