The considerable collection of skeletal remains from the royal Church of St. Mary (c.1050–1540 AD) in Oslo constitutes part of The Schreiner Collection at the Department of Anatomy, University of Oslo. The remains reveal a high incidence of skeletal trauma, especially injuries caused by sharp-edged weapons and extensive violence. Evidence of sharp force trauma was primarily observed on the crania. There were a surprisingly few injuries on postcranial skeletal elements. The injuries were mostly observed on middle-aged and older men, but also on women and subadults. Some of these injuries may be linked to the civil wars in Norway during the 12th and 13th centuries. In most cases, the trauma distribution pattern suggests standardized fighting techniques. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.