Ameloblastoma is a not uncommon tumour reported in the clinical literature and is characterised by a multilocular cavity with ‘soap bubble’ pattern usually in the posterior body of the mandible. A review of the palaeopathology literature did not reveal any examples of ameloblastoma. In this paper, a probable case of ameloblastoma in a male skeleton, 45 – 55 years at age of death, from Casserres, Barcelona, Spain, (ca ad V-IX centuries) is presented. This case was identified during the anthropological study of the remains in the laboratory of biological anthropology in the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. The mandible of this individual (AEC'07-C2-139) exhibits unusual features, like cavitated lesions in the posterior side of the right gonion and the expansion of the right ramus of the mandible. All these features are consistent with ameloblastoma. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.