Migration of mandibular third molars to abnormal anatomic locations is not unknown. Examples reported in the clinical literature are mainly in the ascending ramus of the mandible and the neck of the mandibular condyle, and only four cases have hitherto been reported actually within the mandibular condyle. This case reports on an ectopic lower third molar within the right mandibular condyle in a 19th century male skeleton from Wolverhampton, West Midlands, UK. Examples of this nature have not been found to be described in the bioarchaeological literature; therefore, this case study probably represents the first case reported in this field. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.