The research presented here is a re-examination of domestic dog (Canis familiaris) remains from the Uyak site on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Previous analyses suggest there were two breeds of dog represented in this archaeological assemblage, primarily on the basis of dog cranial size. Here, we use a series of metric and nonmetric traits to test the argument that these ‘breeds’ actually represent a population of male and female dogs. On the basis of the results presented here, we argue the metric and nonmetric data produced by this study suggest that the dogs in this sample are male and female specimens, rather than two distinct breeds. The Uyak assemblage is the largest collection of domestic dog from Kodiak, and these results have the potential to contribute to our understanding of human–dog relationships in the archipelago. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.